Antibodies 2014, 3(2), 192-204; doi:10.3390/antib3020192
Review

Role of B Cells in Breaking and Maintaining Tolerance to Clotting Factor VIII in Congenital and Acquired Hemophilia A

Received: 29 October 2013; in revised form: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B Cells and Immunological Tolerance)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Immune responses directed against clotting factor FVIII (FVIII) seriously complicate treatments for patients with hemophilia A. This response can manifest in congenital hemophilia A patients who generate inhibitor antibodies that bind and inactivate “transplanted” replacement FVIII, as well as in acquired hemophiliacs, whose immune systems have lost tolerance to self-FVIII. Regardless of the mechanism by which production of anti-FVIII inhibitor antibody is triggered, the maintenance of this deleterious response in both congenital and acquired hemophiliacs likely relies upon FVIII specific memory B cells. In this review, the similarities and differences in the kinetics, specificities, and subclasses of antibodies produced in response to allo- and auto-FVIII is outlined. A brief description of the immune cell interactions that contribute to maintenance of antibody response, focusing on development of memory B cells and/or long lived plasma cells is also presented. As current treatments for inhibitor antibodies are not successful in all patients, a better understanding of the functions and persistence of memory B cells specific for FVIII is required. Herein, both clinical and experimental data regarding the effects of immune tolerance induction on memory B cell subpopulations is discussed. Finally, the outcomes of B cell-specific depletion via rituximab in hemophilia and other autoimmune diseases are discussed to highlight insights into the subpopulations of memory B cells that contribute to the development and maintenance of successful tolerance to FVIII.
Keywords: hemophilia; autoimmunity; FVIII; B cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Actor, A.M.; Holley, C.K.; Csencsits-Smith, K. Role of B Cells in Breaking and Maintaining Tolerance to Clotting Factor VIII in Congenital and Acquired Hemophilia A. Antibodies 2014, 3, 192-204.

AMA Style

Actor AM, Holley CK, Csencsits-Smith K. Role of B Cells in Breaking and Maintaining Tolerance to Clotting Factor VIII in Congenital and Acquired Hemophilia A. Antibodies. 2014; 3(2):192-204.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Actor, Amanda M.; Holley, Claire K.; Csencsits-Smith, Keri. 2014. "Role of B Cells in Breaking and Maintaining Tolerance to Clotting Factor VIII in Congenital and Acquired Hemophilia A." Antibodies 3, no. 2: 192-204.

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