Abstract: Some bovine antibodies across all classes are unique, such as the CDR3 of the variable heavy-domain (VH CDR3), which is exceptionally long (up to 66 amino acids), unlike most conventional antibodies where the VH CDR3 loops range from 10 to 25 amino acids. The exceptionally long VH CDR3 is encoded by unusually long germline IGHD genes together with insertion of novel “a” nucleotide rich conserved short nucleotide sequence (CSNS) specifically at the IGH V-D junction. Such an exceptionally long VH CDR3 confers unique “knob and stalk” structural architecture where the knob, formed by intra-VH CDR3 disulfide bridges, is separated by 20 Å solvent exposed stalk composed of anti-parallel beta strands. The substitution of the knob with cytokines, such as, erythropoietin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor 3 (granulocyte colony stimulating factor), results in expression of functional fusion proteins with enhanced pharmacokinetics. The beta stranded stalk can be substituted with other rigid structures, for example, repeat alpha helices to form coiled-coil that mimics the beta-stranded stalk and, thus, opens opportunities for insertion of this structure in the CDRs of antibodies across species. Given the versatility of such a structural platform in bovine antibody VH CDR3, it provides the opportunity for the development of new generation of diagnostics, therapeutics, vaccines and immunomodulating drugs.
Keywords: antibody; scFv; exceptionally long VH CDR3; antigenization; immunomodulation; virus neutralization; vaccine; immunotherapeutics
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Koti, M.; Saini, S.S.; Sachan, A.; Kaushik, A.K. Engineered Bovine Antibodies in the Development of Novel Therapeutics, Immunomodulators and Vaccines. Antibodies 2014, 3, 205-214.
Koti M, Saini SS, Sachan A, Kaushik AK. Engineered Bovine Antibodies in the Development of Novel Therapeutics, Immunomodulators and Vaccines. Antibodies. 2014; 3(2):205-214.
Koti, Madhuri; Saini, Surinder S.; Sachan, Ashish; Kaushik, Azad K. 2014. "Engineered Bovine Antibodies in the Development of Novel Therapeutics, Immunomodulators and Vaccines." Antibodies 3, no. 2: 205-214.