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Water 2017, 9(9), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090721

Adsorption Capacity of a Volcanic Rock—Used in ConstructedWetlands—For Carbamazepine Removal, and Its Modification with Biofilm Growth

1
Quality Environmental Laboratory, Centro Universitario de la Ciénega, University of Guadalajara, Ocotlán, Jalisco 47820, Mexico
2
Laboratory of Catalytic Nanomaterials, Centro Universitario de la Ciénega, University of Guadalajara, Ocotlán, Jalisco 47820, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse)
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Abstract

In this study, the aim was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a volcanic rock commonly used in Mexico as filter medium in constructed wetlands (locally named tezontle) for carbamazepine (CBZ) adsorption, as well as to analyze the change in its capacity with biofilm growth. Adsorption essays were carried out under batch conditions by evaluating two particle sizes of tezontle, two values of the solution pH, and two temperatures; from these essays, optimal conditions for carbamazepine adsorption were obtained. The optimal conditions (pH 8, 25 °C and 0.85–2.0 mm particle-size) were used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of tezontle with biofilm, which was promoted through tezontle exposition to wastewater in glass columns, for six months. The maximum adsorption capacity of clean tezontle was 3.48 µg/g; while for the tezontle with biofilm, the minimum value was 1.75 µg/g (after the second week) and the maximum, was 3.3 µg/g (after six months) with a clear tendency of increasing over time. The adsorption kinetic was fitted to a pseudo-second model for both tezontle without biofilm and with biofilm, thus indicating a chemisorption process. On clean tezontle, both acid active sites (AAS) and basic active sites (BAS) were found in 0.087 and 0.147 meq/g, respectively. The increase in the adsorption capacity of tezontle with biofilm, along the time was correlated with a higher concentration of BAS, presumably from a greater development of biofilm. The presence of biofilm onto tezontle surface was confirmed through FTIR and FE-SEM. These results confirm the essential role of filter media for pharmaceutical removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmaceuticals; micropollutant removal; tezontle; filter media; active sites pharmaceuticals; micropollutant removal; tezontle; filter media; active sites
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Tejeda, A.; Barrera, A.; Zurita, F. Adsorption Capacity of a Volcanic Rock—Used in ConstructedWetlands—For Carbamazepine Removal, and Its Modification with Biofilm Growth. Water 2017, 9, 721.

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