Next Article in Journal
Bivariate Return Period for Design Hyetograph and Relationship with T-Year Design Flood Peak
Next Article in Special Issue
Phosphorus Retention by Fly Ash Amended Filter Media in Aged Bioretention Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Identification of the Factors Influencing the Baseflow in the Permafrost Region of the Northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Review of Phosphorus Removal Structures: How to Assess and Compare Their Performance
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2017, 9(9), 672; doi:10.3390/w9090672

Phosphate Removal from Agricultural Tile Drainage with Iron Enhanced Sand

St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Department of Civil Engineering, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additives in Stormwater Filters for Enhanced Pollutant Removal)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3820 KB, uploaded 6 September 2017]   |  


Can iron enhanced sand filtration capture total phosphorus and soluble phosphorus (phosphate) from agricultural tile drainage? A monitoring study measured the total phosphorus and phosphate capture performance of an iron enhanced sand filter (IESF) installed to treat agricultural tile drainage in Wright County, MT, USA. Overall, for natural rainfall-induced tile drainage events monitored between June and November 2015 and again in 2016, the IESF captured 66% ± 7% (α = 0.05, n = 21) of the influent total phosphorus mass and 64% ± 8% (α = 0.05, n = 31) of the influent phosphate mass. Removal of total phosphorus and phosphate was approximately uniform for large and small rainfall-induced tile drainage events and varied from 42% to 95% for total phosphorus and 9% to 87% for phosphate. The IESF treated 290 m of treated depth since installation, and results indicate that performance is similar or better than constructed wetlands or other IESFs, though not as good as laboratory experiments of IESFs. Routine and non-routine maintenance was performed throughout the project to ensure adequate phosphorus capture and flow rate through the IESF. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphate; phosphorus; soluble; dissolved; iron; stormwater; agricultural; tile drainage; filtration; rainfall phosphate; phosphorus; soluble; dissolved; iron; stormwater; agricultural; tile drainage; filtration; rainfall

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Erickson, A.J.; Gulliver, J.S.; Weiss, P.T. Phosphate Removal from Agricultural Tile Drainage with Iron Enhanced Sand. Water 2017, 9, 672.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top