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Water 2017, 9(6), 386; doi:10.3390/w9060386

Distribution and Removal of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates and Nonylphenol from Textile Wastewater—A Comparison of a Cotton and a Synthetic Fiber Factory in Vietnam

1
Graduate School of Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami City, Kochi 782-8502, Japan
2
School of Economics and Management, Kochi University of Technology, 2-22 Eikokuji, Kochi City, Kochi 780-8515, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chedly Tizaoui
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 20 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract

The textile industry is a significant source of nonyphenol and their ethoxylates, which are suggested to be responsible for endocrine disruption in wildlife and humans. This study is a comparison of two conventional wastewater treatment processes in a cotton and a synthetic fiber factory in Vietnam, with regard to the distribution and removal of nonyphenol ethoxylates and nonyphenol throughout each process. Diverse trends in the distribution of nonyphenol ethoxylates in wastewater from factories, distinguished by their raw materials, could be revealed. Primary coagulation might not perfectly facilitate nitrification in the secondary activated sludge process regarding pH. Nevertheless, satisfactory removals were achieved during coagulation and activated sludge processes in both systems. The roles of long hydraulic retention times (21 and 16 h, respectively), low organic loadings (0.1 and 0.2 gCOD/gMLVSS.day, respectively), extended solids retention times (61 and 66 days, respectively), and mixed liquor suspended solids of greater than 2000 mg/L have been demonstrated. The findings provide evidence and a better understanding of nonyphenol ethoxylate and nonyphenol removal efficacy as well as influencing factors in Vietnamese textile wastewater treatment. The results are beneficial for the textile industry in Vietnam regarding investment decisions for wastewater treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: coagulation; activated sludge process; temperature; nitrifying conditions; hydraulic retention time; solids retention time; cotton; synthetic fibers; textile wastewater coagulation; activated sludge process; temperature; nitrifying conditions; hydraulic retention time; solids retention time; cotton; synthetic fibers; textile wastewater
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ho, H.; Watanabe, T. Distribution and Removal of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates and Nonylphenol from Textile Wastewater—A Comparison of a Cotton and a Synthetic Fiber Factory in Vietnam. Water 2017, 9, 386.

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