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Water 2017, 9(5), 361; doi:10.3390/w9050361

Upscaling Stem to Community-Level Transpiration for Two Sand-Fixing Plants: Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla

1
Inner Mongolia Water Resource Protection and Utilization Key Laboratory, College of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, China
2
Hydraulics/Water Resources Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0241, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luc Lambs
Received: 20 November 2016 / Revised: 7 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Soil-Vegetation Dynamic Interactions in Changing Climate)
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Abstract

The information on transpiration is vital for sustaining fragile ecosystem in arid/semiarid environment, including the Horqin Sandy Land (HSL) located in northeast China. However, such information is scarce in existing literature. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure sap flow of selected individual stems of two sand-fixing plants, namely Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla, in HSL; and (2) upscale the measured stem-level sap flow for estimating the community-level transpiration. The measurements were done from 1 May to 30 September 2015 (i.e., during the growing season). The upscaling function was developed to have one dependent variable, namely sap flow rate, and two independent variables, namely stem cross-sectional area of Salix gordejevii and leaf area of Caragana microphylla. The results indicated that during the growing season, the total actual transpiration of the Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla communities was found to be 287 ± 31 and 197 ± 24 mm, respectively, implying that the Salix gordejevii community might consume 1.5 times more water than the Caragana microphylla community. For this same growing season, based on the Penman–Monteith equation, the total actual evapotranspiration for these two communities was estimated to be 323 and 229 mm, respectively. The daily transpiration from the upscaling function was well correlated with the daily evapotranspiration by the Penman–Monteith equation (coefficient of determination R2 ≥ 0.67), indicating the applicability of this upscaling function, a useful tool for managing and restoring sand-fixing vegetations. View Full-Text
Keywords: desertification; sand dune; sap flow; stem cross-sectional area; leaf area desertification; sand dune; sap flow; stem cross-sectional area; leaf area
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Duan, L.; Lv, Y.; Yan, X.; Liu, T.; Wang, X. Upscaling Stem to Community-Level Transpiration for Two Sand-Fixing Plants: Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla. Water 2017, 9, 361.

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