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Water 2017, 9(5), 359; doi:10.3390/w9050359

Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting for Mombasa: Scenario Development with Image Classification and Water Resources Simulation

1
Coast Water Services Board, Mikindani Street, Off Nkurumah Road, 90417-80100 Mombasa, Kenya
2
Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 9A, 30167 Hannover, Germany
3
Department B2.3, Groundwater Resources—Quality and Dynamics, Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover, Germany
4
Institute of Photogrammetry and GeoInformation, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Nienburger Str.1, 30167 Hannover, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ataur Rahman
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract

Mombasa faces severe water scarcity problems. The existing supply is unable to satisfy the demand. This article demonstrates the combination of satellite image analysis and modelling as tools for the development of an urban rainwater harvesting policy. For developing a sustainable remedy policy, rooftop rainwater harvesting (RRWH) strategies were implemented into the water supply and demand model WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System). Roof areas were detected using supervised image classification. Future population growth, improved living standards, and climate change predictions until 2035 were combined with four management strategies. Image classification techniques were able to detect roof areas with acceptable accuracy. The simulated annual yield of RRWH ranged from 2.3 to 23 million cubic meters (MCM) depending on the extent of the roof area. Apart from potential RRWH, additional sources of water are required for full demand coverage. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mombasa; roof rainwater harvesting; water supply; water demand; integrated water resources management; WEAP Mombasa; roof rainwater harvesting; water supply; water demand; integrated water resources management; WEAP
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ojwang, R.O.; Dietrich, J.; Anebagilu, P.K.; Beyer, M.; Rottensteiner, F. Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting for Mombasa: Scenario Development with Image Classification and Water Resources Simulation. Water 2017, 9, 359.

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