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Water 2017, 9(4), 298; doi:10.3390/w9040298

Understanding and Control of Biopolymer Fouling in Ultrafiltration of Different Water Types

1
State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-Hydraulic Engineering in Arid Area, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048, China
2
Department of Water Quality Control, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin 10623, Germany
3
Department of water resource and water supply, Technical University Hamburg-Hamburg, Hamburg 21073, Germany
4
National Supervision & Inspection Center of Environmental Protection Equipment Qaulity (Jiangsu), Yixing 214205, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sunny Jiang
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
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Abstract

The present work focuses on understanding and control of biopolymer fouling in ultrafiltration of a typical surface water and nearby secondary effluent for direct and indirect portable use. Characterization results show that both kinds of biopolymers are of similar molecular weight. Longer than one year water quality monitoring results show that the C/N ratio in the secondary effluent biopolymers was relatively constant at around 4.8, while that in the surface water macromolecules fluctuated at around 6.9. Under a similar mass load, the investigated secondary effluent biopolymers lead to hydraulic resistance slightly higher than that caused by filtering surface water macromolecules; however, the correspondingly formed fouling is significantly less reversible by hydraulic backwashing. The quantity of the nitrogenous biopolymers in the secondary effluent demonstrated a strong correlation with the extent of the irreversible fouling in ultrafiltration (UF), while that from the surface water did not. In membrane fouling cleaning tests, certain detergent demonstrated high efficiency in removing the irreversible fouling after UF of the secondary effluent, but presented no effect in eliminating fouling caused by the surface water foulants. In-line coagulation using FeCl3 prior to UF was shown as an effective fouling control method, but the effect depends heavily on the type of feed water. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopolymer fouling; protein; secondary effluent; surface water; ultrafiltration biopolymer fouling; protein; secondary effluent; surface water; ultrafiltration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zheng, X.; Zietzschmann, F.; Plume, S.; Paar, H.; Ernst, M.; Wang, Z.; Jekel, M. Understanding and Control of Biopolymer Fouling in Ultrafiltration of Different Water Types. Water 2017, 9, 298.

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