Next Article in Journal
Full Spectrum Analytical Channel Design with the Capacity/Supply Ratio (CSR)
Next Article in Special Issue
Sensitivity of Calibrated Parameters and Water Resource Estimates on Different Objective Functions and Optimization Algorithms
Previous Article in Journal
Comparative Analysis of HRU and Grid-Based SWAT Models
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessment of Flood Frequency Alteration by Dam Construction via SWAT Simulation
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2017, 9(4), 270;

Evaluating Various Low-Impact Development Scenarios for Optimal Design Criteria Development

National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Wanju, Jeollabuk-do 565-851, Korea
Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension, Dallas, TX 75252, USA
Spatial Science Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Karim Abbaspour, Saeid Ashraf Vaghefi, Monireh Faramarzi and Lei Chen
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2442 KB, uploaded 14 April 2017]   |  


Low-impact development (LID) practices as a new approach to urban stormwater management have demonstrated their positive effects through the reduction of surface runoff volumes and pollutant loadings in a substantial amount of research. The effectiveness of LID practices can be affected by various LID conditions such as type, location, and area. Cost is also an important factor to be considered in the evaluation of LID effects. This study presented the optimal LID conditions that can achieve targeted reduction goals with minimal cost, and analyzed the effectiveness of LID practices under optimal LID conditions and the consequential cost on a watershed scale. To determine cost-effective LID conditions, three types of LID practices (rain gardens, rainwater harvesting tanks, and permeable pavements), two locations (residential and commercial areas), and percent allocation of LID practices were considered. Manual optimization was conducted under those LID conditions for five targeted reduction goals which were set for surface runoff and nutrient loadings. The results provided various configurations of cost-effective conditions in treating the targeted goals, and represented the impacts of the optimized LID conditions on the effectiveness of LID practices and the consequential cost. The present study could ultimately assist regulators in establishing proper watershed-scale strategies of LID conditions for effectively managing watersheds. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-impact development (LID) conditions; effectiveness of LID practices; manual optimization; cost; watershed management low-impact development (LID) conditions; effectiveness of LID practices; manual optimization; cost; watershed management

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Seo, M.; Jaber, F.; Srinivasan, R. Evaluating Various Low-Impact Development Scenarios for Optimal Design Criteria Development. Water 2017, 9, 270.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top