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Water 2017, 9(12), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120921

Distribution Patterns of the Freshwater Oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Influenced by Environmental Factors in Streams on a Korean Nationwide Scale

1
Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
2
Freshwater Biodiversity Research Division, Nakdonggang National Institute of Biological Resources, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 37242, Korea
3
Department of Environmental Health Science, Konkuk University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea
4
National Institute of Environmental Research, Seo-gu, Incheon 22689, Korea
5
Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract

Aquatic oligochaetes are very common in streams, and are used as biological assessment indicators as well as in the biological management of organic-enriched systems. In this study, we analyzed the effects of environmental factors influencing the distribution of aquatic oligochaetes Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri in streams. We used 13 environmental factors in three categories (i.e., geography, hydrology, and physicochemistry). Data on the distribution of oligochaetes and environmental factors were obtained from 1159 sampling sites throughout Korea on a nationwide scale. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were performed to analyze the relationships between the occurrence of aquatic oligochaetes and environmental factors. A random forest model was used to evaluate the relative importance of the environmental factors affecting the distribution of oligochaetes. HCA classified sampling sites into four groups according to differences in environmental factors, and NMDS ordination reflected the differences of environmental factors, in particular, water depth, velocity, and altitude, among the four groups defined in the HCA. Furthermore, using a random forest model, turbidity and water velocity were evaluated as highly important factors influencing the distribution of L. hoffmeisteri. View Full-Text
Keywords: distribution patterns of species; environmental factor; multiple scale; multivariate analyses; machine learning model distribution patterns of species; environmental factor; multiple scale; multivariate analyses; machine learning model
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Kang, H.; Bae, M.-J.; Lee, D.-S.; Hwang, S.-J.; Moon, J.-S.; Park, Y.-S. Distribution Patterns of the Freshwater Oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Influenced by Environmental Factors in Streams on a Korean Nationwide Scale. Water 2017, 9, 921.

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