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Water 2016, 8(8), 315; doi:10.3390/w8080315

Developing a Conjunctive Use Optimization Model for Allocating Surface and Subsurface Water in an Off-Stream Artificial Lake System

1
Department of Civil Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan
2
Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kristiana Hansen, Ginger Paige and Karina Schoengold
Received: 19 May 2016 / Revised: 2 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 26 July 2016
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Abstract

This work develops a rule curve-based conjunctive use management model for optimizing the operating rules for a lake–groundwater system with off-stream storage lakes. The proposed procedure is a simulation-optimization approach that embeds an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) instead of a groundwater numerical model into a genetic algorithm (GA). The direct physical exchange between lake water with groundwater is simulated using the ANN model, which is a reduced version of a full numerical model, MODFLOW with an LAK3 module. By applying the ANN model, the proposed procedure can reduce the computational burden that is induced by the nonlinear exchange. An operating rule-based optimal conjunctive use management model for the Gaopin Artificial lakes system in Taiwan was thus developed using the proposed framework. A set of optimal solutions involves rule curves and a discount ratio. Simulation results demonstrate that the embedded ANN model can accurately simulate the nonlinear exchange of a lake with groundwater. The embedded ANN model is less computationally complex than the numerical model. This work demonstrates a methodology for reducing the computational burden of the optimal conjunctive use management model that is associated with an internal nonlinear system by using the ANN reduced model. Specifically, the concept of, and results obtained using the developed operating rule-based model incorporating five artificial lakes and considering the nonlinear exchange of those lakes with the groundwater system provides a valuable practical reference for solving related conjunctive use problems. View Full-Text
Keywords: conjunctive use optimization model; off-stream artificial lake; genetic algorithm; artificial neural network; MODFLOW and LAK3 module conjunctive use optimization model; off-stream artificial lake; genetic algorithm; artificial neural network; MODFLOW and LAK3 module
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pan, C.-C.; Chen, Y.-W.; Chang, L.-C.; Huang, C.-W. Developing a Conjunctive Use Optimization Model for Allocating Surface and Subsurface Water in an Off-Stream Artificial Lake System. Water 2016, 8, 315.

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