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Water 2016, 8(7), 285; doi:10.3390/w8070285

Impacts of Salinity on Saint-Augustin Lake, Canada: Remediation Measures at Watershed Scale

Department of Civil and Water Engineering, Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
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Academic Editors: Joan M. Brehm and Brian W. Eisenhauer
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 5 July 2016 / Published: 11 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Watershed Protection and Management)
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Abstract

Winter road network management is a source of anthropogenic salinity in the Saint-Augustin Lake watershed (Quebec City, QC, Canada). To prevent the potential impact caused by road runoff involving de-icing salts (NaCl) and trace metals (Cd and Pb) on the watershed, a full-scale treatment chain system (including a detention basin, a filtering bed, and a constructed wetland) was built. Average Cl and Na concentrations in groundwater were higher in wells affected by road network (125 mg/L Cl and 64 mg/L Na) than in control wells (13 mg/L Cl and 33 mg/L Na) suggesting a contamination by de-icing salts. The monitoring of influent and effluent surface water in the treatment system has shown a seasonal dependence in NaCl concentrations and electrical conductivity values, being the highest in summer, linked with the lower precipitation and higher temperature. Concentration ranges were as follows: 114–846 mg/L Na and 158–1757 mg/L Cl (summer) > 61–559 mg/L Na and 63–799 mg/L Cl (spring and autumn). The treatment system removal efficiency was significant, however with seasonal variations: 16%–20% Cl, 3%–25% Na, 7%–10% Cd and 7%–36% Pb. The treatment system has shown an interesting potential to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic salinity at watershed scale with higher expected performances in the subsequent years of operation. View Full-Text
Keywords: de-icing salt; trace metals; surface water; groundwater; watershed; remediation; ecoengineering de-icing salt; trace metals; surface water; groundwater; watershed; remediation; ecoengineering
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Guesdon, G.; de Santiago-Martín, A.; Raymond, S.; Messaoud, H.; Michaux, A.; Roy, S.; Galvez, R. Impacts of Salinity on Saint-Augustin Lake, Canada: Remediation Measures at Watershed Scale. Water 2016, 8, 285.

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