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Water 2016, 8(7), 278; doi:10.3390/w8070278

Influence of Rainfall Characteristics on Total Suspended Solids in Urban Runoff: A Case Study in Beijing, China

1
Key Laboratory of Urban Stormwater System and Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044, China
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5337, USA
3
Beijing Cooperative Innovation Research Center on Architectural Energy Saving and Emission Reduction, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044, China
4
Beijing Water Science and Technology Institute, Beijing 100048, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ataur Rahman
Received: 2 April 2016 / Revised: 25 June 2016 / Accepted: 29 June 2016 / Published: 7 July 2016
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Abstract

An urban rainfall-runoff water quality model was developed to simulate total suspend solids (TSS) using the stormwater management model (SWMM) for a 3.8 ha university campus in Beijing (approximately 76.5% impervious), and calibrated and validated against data from two observed rainfall events (221.2 and 16.6 mm rainfall). Model performance is satisfactory (Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency 0.8 and 0.72 for flow and 0.74 and 0.51 for TSS concentration, respectively). A series of sensitivity model runs were conducted using the calibrated SWMM to study the influences of rainfall characteristics (rainfall hyetographs, depths and durations) and surface flooding on the TSS concentration in outlet runoff of the catchment. The Pilgrim and Cordery rainfall distribution defines a first-quartile storm (the most severe) and results in the highest peak discharge and TSS concentration at the outlet but the lowest outlet TSS load because of the highest TSS flood loss (32.3%). The simulated TSS pollutograph resulting from the Keifer and Chu rainfall distribution (with r = 0.5) is almost identical to that resulting from the alternating block rainfall distribution. Under the same rainfall hyetograph, simulated peak discharge and outlet TSS load are positively correlated (R2 = 0.95) to the rainfall depth as a function of the return period. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainfall hyetograph; rainfall depth; rainfall intensity; rainfall duration; stormwater management model (SWMM); urban non-point source (NPS) pollution; total suspend solids (TSS); surface flooding; stormwater infrastructure rainfall hyetograph; rainfall depth; rainfall intensity; rainfall duration; stormwater management model (SWMM); urban non-point source (NPS) pollution; total suspend solids (TSS); surface flooding; stormwater infrastructure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gong, Y.; Liang, X.; Li, X.; Li, J.; Fang, X.; Song, R. Influence of Rainfall Characteristics on Total Suspended Solids in Urban Runoff: A Case Study in Beijing, China. Water 2016, 8, 278.

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