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Water 2016, 8(6), 248;

Inter-Laboratory Evaluation and Successful Implementation of MS2 Coliphage as a Surrogate to Establish Proficiency Using a BSL-3 Procedure

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington, DC 20460, USA
Central Savannah River Area (CSRA), Science & Engineering, 6361 Walker Lane, Suite 300, Alexandria, VA 22310, USA
Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop D66, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
IHRC, Inc., 2 Ravinia Drive NE, Atlanta, GA 30346, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sunny Jiang and Yiping Cao
Received: 15 April 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 10 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogens in Water)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [225 KB, uploaded 10 June 2016]


The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Water Laboratory Alliance relies on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s ultrafiltration-based Water Processing Procedure (WPP) for concentration of biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) agents from 10 L to 100 L of drinking water. The WPP requires comprehensive training and practice to maintain proficiency, resulting in a critical need for quality control (QC) criteria. The aim of this study was to develop criteria using male-specific (MS2) coliphage (BSL-2 agent) to minimize safety hazards associated with BSL-3 agents and to use the criteria to evaluate analytical proficiency during a demonstration exercise. EPA Method 1602 with EasyPhage was used during the study to develop QC criteria for 100-mL, and 40–100 L samples. The demonstration exercise indicated that the MS2 criteria would allow laboratories to demonstrate proficiency using the WPP with 40–100 L samples. In addition, the QC criteria developed for 100-mL samples has broad applicability at laboratories that are using MS2 for other types of analyses, such as assessment of water treatment devices. The development of MS2 QC criteria allows laboratories to develop and confirm ongoing proficiency using the WPP. View Full-Text
Keywords: male-specific (MS2); coliphage; drinking water; quality control criteria; ultrafiltration male-specific (MS2); coliphage; drinking water; quality control criteria; ultrafiltration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mapp, L.; Chambers, Y.; Takundwa, P.; Hill, V.R.; Schneeberger, C.; Knee, J.; Raynor, M.; Klonicki, P.; Miller, K.; Pope, M.; Hwang, N. Inter-Laboratory Evaluation and Successful Implementation of MS2 Coliphage as a Surrogate to Establish Proficiency Using a BSL-3 Procedure. Water 2016, 8, 248.

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