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Water 2016, 8(6), 217; doi:10.3390/w8060217

Monitoring of Surface Waters in Germany under the Water Framework Directive—A Review of Approaches, Methods and Results

Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt), Section II 2.4 Inland Waters, Wörlitzer Platz 1, 06844 Dessau-Roßlau, Germany
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Academic Editors: Young-Seuk Park and Richard Skeffington
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
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Abstract

The European Commission Water Framework Directive (WFD) was established 16 years ago and forms the current basis for monitoring surface waters and groundwater in Europe. This legislation resulted in a necessary adaptation of the monitoring networks and programs for rivers, lakes, and transitional and coastal waters to the requirements of the WFD at German and European levels. The present study reviews the most important objectives of both the monitoring of surface waters and the principles of the WFD monitoring plan. Furthermore, we look at the changes water monitoring in Germany has undergone over the past sixteen years and we summarize monitoring results from German surfaces waters under the WFD. Comparisons of European approaches for biological assessments, of standards set for physical and chemical factors and of environmental quality standards for pollutants reveal the necessity for further European-wide harmonization. The objective of this harmonization is to improve comparability of the assessment of the ecological status of waters in Europe, and thus also to more coherently activate action programs of measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: Water Framework Directive; monitoring network; freshwater monitoring; monitoring types; ecological status; river basin specific pollutants; adaptive freshwater management Water Framework Directive; monitoring network; freshwater monitoring; monitoring types; ecological status; river basin specific pollutants; adaptive freshwater management
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Arle, J.; Mohaupt, V.; Kirst, I. Monitoring of Surface Waters in Germany under the Water Framework Directive—A Review of Approaches, Methods and Results. Water 2016, 8, 217.

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