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Water 2016, 8(4), 110; doi:10.3390/w8040110

Potential for Potable Water Savings in Buildings by Using Stormwater Harvested from Porous Pavements

Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brazil
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Academic Editor: Ataur Rahman
Received: 21 February 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2016 / Accepted: 18 March 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
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Abstract

There is a growing concern about the scarcity of water resources due to population growth and increased demand for potable water. Thus, the rational use of water has become necessary for the conservation of such resources. The objective of this study is to estimate the potential for potable water savings in buildings of different sectors—residential, public and commercial—in the city of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, by using stormwater harvested from porous pavements. Models were constructed to assess infiltration and rainwater quality; samples of stormwater from a local road were collected to evaluate its quality; and computer simulation was performed to assess the potential for potable water savings and rainwater tank sizing. Draining asphalt concrete slabs with two types of modifiers were used, i.e., tire rubber and SBS polymer—styrene-butadiene-styrene. The Netuno computer programme was used to simulate the potential for potable water savings considering the use of rainwater for non-potable uses such as flushing toilets and urinals, cleaning external areas, and garden watering. Average stormwater infiltration was 85.4%. It was observed that stormwater is not completely pure. From the models, the pH was 5.4 and the concentrations of ammonia, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen were 0.41, 0.14, 0.002, and 9.0 mg/L, respectively. The results for the stormwater runoff of a paved road were 0.23, 0.11, 0.12, 0.08, 1.41, 2.11, 0.02, and 9.0 mg/L for the parameters aluminium, ammonia, copper, chromium, iron, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen, respectively; and the pH was 6.7. In the city of Florianópolis, which has a surface area of paved roads of approximately 11,044,216 m², the potential for potable water savings ranged from 1.2% to 19.4% in the residential sector, 2.1% to 75.7% in the public sector and 6.5% to 70.0% in the commercial sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainwater; stormwater; buildings; potable water savings; porous pavement; sustainability rainwater; stormwater; buildings; potable water savings; porous pavement; sustainability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Antunes, L.N.; Thives, L.P.; Ghisi, E. Potential for Potable Water Savings in Buildings by Using Stormwater Harvested from Porous Pavements. Water 2016, 8, 110.

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