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Water 2016, 8(3), 92; doi:10.3390/w8030092

Differing Levels of Forestry Best Management Practices at Stream Crossing Structures Affect Sediment Delivery and Installation Costs

1
Department of Forest Resources & Environmental Conservation, Virginia Tech, 228 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc., 8270 McNatt Rd., Aubrey, TX 76227, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kelly T. Morgan
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BMP Development, Implementation, and Performance)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2198 KB, uploaded 10 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Forestry best management practices (BMPs) are used to reduce sedimentation from forest stream crossings. Three BMP treatments (BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+) were applied to three forest road stream crossings (bridge, culvert, and ford). BMP− did not meet existing BMP guidelines, BMP-std met standard recommendations, and BMP+ treatments exceeded recommendations. Following BMP applications, three simulated rainfall intensities (low, medium, and high) were applied in order to evaluate sediment delivery from crossing type and BMP level. During rainfall simulation, sediment concentrations (mg/L) were collected with automated samplers and discharge (L/s) was estimated to calculate total sediment loading. Costs of stream crossings and BMP levels were also quantified. Mean sediment associated with the three stream crossings were 3.38, 1.87, and 0.64 Mg for the BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels, respectively. Ford, culvert, and bridge crossings produced 13.04, 12.95, and 0.17 Mg of sediment during construction, respectively. BMP enhancement was more critical for sediment control at the culvert and ford crossings than at the bridge. Respective costs for BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels were $5,368, $5,658, and $5,858 for the bridge; $3,568, $4,166 and $4,595 for the culvert; and $180, $420 and $1,903 for the ford. Costs and sediment values suggest that current standard BMP levels effectively reduce stream sediment while minimizing costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest roads; water quality; forest operations; erosion; rainfall simulation forest roads; water quality; forest operations; erosion; rainfall simulation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Morris, B.C.; Bolding, M.C.; Aust, W.M.; McGuire, K.J.; Schilling, E.B.; Sullivan, J. Differing Levels of Forestry Best Management Practices at Stream Crossing Structures Affect Sediment Delivery and Installation Costs. Water 2016, 8, 92.

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