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Water 2016, 8(3), 77; doi:10.3390/w8030077

Investigating Trends in Streamflow and Precipitation in Huangfuchuan Basin with Wavelet Analysis and the Mann-Kendall Test

College of Water Resources and Hydrology, Hohai University, Xikang Road 1, Nanjing 210098, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ataur Rahman
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016

Abstract

This study aims to investigate trends in streamflow and precipitation in the period 1954–2010 in a semiarid region of the Yellow River watershed, Huangfuchuan basin, China. The combination of the wavelet transform and different Mann-Kendall (MK) tests were employed to figure out the basic trends structure in streamflow and precipitation and what time scales are affecting the observed trends. The comparative analysis with five MK test methods showed that the modified MK tests with full serial correlation structure performed better when significant autocorrelations exhibited for more than one lag. Three criteria were used to determine the optimal smooth mother wavelet, the decomposition level and the extension mode used in the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) procedure. The first criteria referred to the relative error of the wavelet approximated component and the original series. The second one was the relative error of MK Z-values of approximation component and the original series. Additionally, a new criterion (Er), based on the relative error of energy between the approximate component and the original series, was proposed in this study, with better performance than the previous two criteria. Further, a new powerful index, the energy of the hydrological time series, was proposed to verify the dominant periodic components for the observed trends. The analysis indicated that all monthly, seasonal and annual streamflow showed significant decreasing trends, while no significant trends were found in precipitation. Results from the DWT and MK tests revealed that the main factors influencing the trends in the monthly and seasonal series in Huangfuchuan watershed are intra-annual cycles, while the leading factors affecting the trends in the annual series are decadal events. Different driving factors (e.g., seasonal cycles, solar activities, etc.) related to the periodicities identified in these data types resulted in this discrepancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: trend analysis; wavelet transform; Huangfuchuan basin; Mann-Kendall test; streamflow; precipitation trend analysis; wavelet transform; Huangfuchuan basin; Mann-Kendall test; streamflow; precipitation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.; Guan, Y.; Shao, G.; Zhang, D. Investigating Trends in Streamflow and Precipitation in Huangfuchuan Basin with Wavelet Analysis and the Mann-Kendall Test. Water 2016, 8, 77.

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