Next Article in Journal
Using Exceedance Probability to Determine Total Maximum Daily Loads for Reservoir Water Quality Management
Next Article in Special Issue
Space–Time Characterization of Rainfall Field in Tuscany
Previous Article in Journal
Water Governance in England: Improving Understandings and Practices through Systemic Co-Inquiry
Previous Article in Special Issue
Rainfall Characteristics and Regionalization in Peninsular Malaysia Based on a High Resolution Gridded Data Set
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2016, 8(11), 539; doi:10.3390/w8110539

An Integrated Approach for Site Selection of Snow Measurement Stations

1
Technical and Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 1477893855, Iran
2
Department of Civil, Environmental and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32818, USA
3
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Box 19308, 416 Yates St. Suite 425, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
4
Alberta Environment and Parks, Calgary, AB T2E 7L7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tommaso Moramarco
Received: 28 June 2016 / Revised: 29 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydro-Meteorological Monitoring)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8578 KB, uploaded 17 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Snowmelt provides a reliable water resource for meeting domestic, agricultural, industrial and hydropower demands. Consequently, estimating the available snow water equivalent is essential for water resource management of snowy regions. Due to the spatiotemporal variability of the snowfall pattern in mountainous areas and difficult access to high altitudes areas, snow measurement is one of the most challenging hydro-meteorological data collection efforts. Development of an optimum snow measurement network is a complex task that requires integration of meteorological, hydrological, physiographical and economic studies. In this study, site selection of snow measurement stations is carried out through an integrated process using observed snow course data and analysis of historical snow cover images from National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) at both regional and local scales. Several important meteorological and hydrological factors, such as monthly and annual rainfall distribution, spatial distribution of average frequency of snow observation (FSO) for two periods of snow falling and melting season, as well as priority contribution of sub-basins to annual snowmelt runoff are considered for selecting optimum station network. The FSO maps representing accumulation of snowfall during falling months and snowpack persistence during melting months are prepared in the GIS based on NOAA-AVHRR historical snow cover images. Basins are partitioned into 250 m elevation intervals such that within each interval, establishment of new stations or relocation/removing of the existing stations were proposed. The decision is made on the basis of the combination of meteorological, hydrological and satellite information. Economic aspects and road access constraints are also considered in determining the station type. Eventually, for the study area encompassing a number of large basins in southwest of Iran, several new stations and relocation of some existing stations are proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: snow measurement network; site selection; satellite images; Iran snow measurement network; site selection; satellite images; Iran
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Saghafian, B.; Davtalab, R.; Rafieeinasab, A.; Ghanbarpour, M.R. An Integrated Approach for Site Selection of Snow Measurement Stations. Water 2016, 8, 539.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top