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Water 2016, 8(11), 514; doi:10.3390/w8110514

Nitrogen Removal in a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Estimated Using the First-Order Kinetic Model

1,2,3,†,* , 1,2,3,†
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1,2,3
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4
1
Institute of Wetland Research, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
2
Beijing Hanshiqiao National Wetland Ecosystem Research Station, Beijing 101399, China
3
The Beijing Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecological Function and Restoration, Beijing 100091, China
4
School of Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hans Brix, Carlos A. Arias and Pedro N. Carvalho
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 7 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands for Water Treatment: New Developments)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5069 KB, uploaded 7 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

We monitored the water quality and hydrological conditions of a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) in Beijing, China, for two years. We simulated the area-based constant and the temperature coefficient with the first-order kinetic model. We examined the relationships between the nitrogen (N) removal rate, N load, seasonal variations in the N removal rate, and environmental factors—such as the area-based constant, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO). The effluent ammonia (NH4+-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations were significantly lower than the influent concentrations (p < 0.01, n = 38). The NO3-N load was significantly correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01), but the NH4+-N load was not correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.02, p > 0.01). The area-based constants of NO3-N and NH4+-N at 20 °C were 27 ± 26 (mean ± SD) and 14 ± 10 m∙year−1, respectively. The temperature coefficients for NO3-N and NH4+-N were estimated at 1.004 and 0.960, respectively. The area-based constants for NO3-N and NH4+-N were not correlated with temperature (p > 0.01). The NO3-N area-based constant was correlated with the corresponding load (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01). The NH4+-N area rate was correlated with DO (R2 = 0.69, p < 0.01), suggesting that the factors that influenced the N removal rate in this wetland met Liebig’s law of the minimum. View Full-Text
Keywords: horizontal subsurface flow wetland; N removal; first-order kinetics; model horizontal subsurface flow wetland; N removal; first-order kinetics; model
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Cui, L.; Li, W.; Zhang, Y.; Wei, J.; Lei, Y.; Zhang, M.; Pan, X.; Zhao, X.; Li, K.; Ma, W. Nitrogen Removal in a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Estimated Using the First-Order Kinetic Model. Water 2016, 8, 514.

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