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Water 2016, 8(1), 18; doi:10.3390/w8010018

A Reliability Analysis of a Rainfall Harvesting System in Southern Italy

1
Facoltà di Ingegneria ed Architettura, Università degli Studi di Enna Kore, Enna 94100, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile Ambientale Aerospaziale e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo 90128, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ataur Rahman
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 8 January 2016
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Abstract

Rainwater harvesting (RWH) may be an effective alternative water supply solution in regions affected by water scarcity. It has recently become a particularly important option in arid and semi-arid areas (like Mediterranean basins), mostly because of its many benefits and affordable costs. This study provides an analysis of the reliability of using a rainwater harvesting system to supply water for toilet flushing and garden irrigation purposes, with reference to a single-family home in a residential area of Sicily (Southern Italy). A flushing water demand pattern was evaluated using water consumption data collected from a sample of residential customers during an extended measurement campaign. A daily water balance simulation of the rainwater storage tank was performed, and the yield-after-spillage algorithm was used to define the tank release rule. The model’s performance was evaluated using rainfall data from more than 100 different sites located throughout the Sicilian territory. This regional analysis provided annual reliability curves for the system as a function of mean annual precipitation, which have practical applications in this area of study. The uncertainty related to the regional model predictions was also assessed. A cost-benefit analysis highlighted that the implementation of a rainwater harvesting system in Sicily can provide environmental and economic advantages over traditional water supply methods. In particular, the regional analysis identified areas where the application of this system would be most effective. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainwater harvesting; flushing water demand; water balance simulation; reliability analysis rainwater harvesting; flushing water demand; water balance simulation; reliability analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liuzzo, L.; Notaro, V.; Freni, G. A Reliability Analysis of a Rainfall Harvesting System in Southern Italy. Water 2016, 8, 18.

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