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Water 2015, 7(9), 4622-4637; doi:10.3390/w7094622

Estimating the Rainwater Potential per Household in an Urban Area: Case Study in Central Mexico

1
Académica de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo km 4.5 Col. Carboneras, Mineral de la Reforma 42184, Mexico
2
Académica de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo km 4.5 Col. Carboneras, Mineral de la Reforma 42184, Mexico
3
Académica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo km 4.5 Col. Carboneras, Mineral de la Reforma 42184, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ataur Rahman
Received: 24 June 2015 / Accepted: 13 August 2015 / Published: 27 August 2015
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Abstract

In cities with problems of aridity and a shortage of drinking water supply, there is an urgent need to establish alternatives for an adequate water management program. This study proposes an estimation through which users can select a rainwater harvesting system for non-drinking water consumption. For the cities of Pachuca and Mineral de la Reforma, State of Hidalgo, Central Mexico, the historical record of rainfall analyzed covers a period of 33 years (1980–2013). We calculated the monthly volume of rainwater harvestable from roof areas (VR, m3) with household roof areas (Hra) of 45 m2, 50 m2, 100 m2 and 200 m2. It is proposed to replace in each single house the flush toilets and washing machine with ecological devices with consumptions of 4.8 L/flush and 70 L/load, respectively. Furthermore, a maximum and a minimum consumption of eight and six flushes/day/person (flush toilets) and five and four loads/week (washing machine), respectively, are proposed. From these considerations, our estimations of the harvestable rainwater showed that households with Hra of 45 m2 and 50 m2 would depend on the water supply system of the public network during part of the year. On the other hand, households with Hra of 100 m2 and 200 m2 might be able to store enough water to meet other needs besides toilet flushing and laundry. View Full-Text
Keywords: domestic consumption; harvesting; Central Mexico; rainwater; roof area domestic consumption; harvesting; Central Mexico; rainwater; roof area
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lizárraga-Mendiola, L.; Vázquez-Rodríguez, G.; Blanco-Piñón, A.; Rangel-Martínez, Y.; González-Sandoval, M. Estimating the Rainwater Potential per Household in an Urban Area: Case Study in Central Mexico. Water 2015, 7, 4622-4637.

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