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Water 2015, 7(7), 3906-3924; doi:10.3390/w7073906

Experimenting with Coupled Hydro-Ecological Models to Explore Measure Plans and Water Quality Goals in a Semi-Enclosed Swedish Bay

Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping 60176, Sweden
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Academic Editor: Lutz Breuer
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydro-Ecological Modeling)
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Abstract

Measure plans are currently being developed for the Water Framework Directive (WFD) by European water authorities. In Sweden, such plans include measures for good ecological status in the coastal ecosystem. However, the effect of suggested measures is not yet known. We therefore experimented with different nutrient reduction measures on land and in the sea, using a model system of two coupled dynamic models for a semi-enclosed bay and its catchment. The science question was whether it is worthwhile to implement measures in the local catchment area to reach local environmental goals, or if the status of the Bay is more governed by the water exchange with the Sea. The results indicate that by combining several measures in the catchment, the nutrient load can be reduced by 15%–20%. To reach the same effect on nutrient concentrations in the Bay, the concentrations of the sea must be reduced by 80%. Hence, in this case, local measures have a stronger impact on coastal water quality. The experiment also show that the present targets for good ecological status set up by the Swedish water authorities may be unrealistic for this Bay. Finally, we discuss when and how to use hydro-ecological models for societal needs. View Full-Text
Keywords: eutrophication; nutrients; coupled models; remedial measures; Baltic Sea; water exchange; coastal zone; environmental quality objectives; science in practice eutrophication; nutrients; coupled models; remedial measures; Baltic Sea; water exchange; coastal zone; environmental quality objectives; science in practice
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Arheimer, B.; Nilsson, J.; Lindström, G. Experimenting with Coupled Hydro-Ecological Models to Explore Measure Plans and Water Quality Goals in a Semi-Enclosed Swedish Bay. Water 2015, 7, 3906-3924.

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