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Water 2015, 7(7), 3225-3242; doi:10.3390/w7073225

Determination of Algae and Macrophyte Species Distribution in Three Wastewater Stabilization Ponds Using Metagenomics Analysis

1
,
1,†,* , 1,†
,
2,†
and
2,†
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Queen's University, Ellis Hall, 58 University Avenue, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
2
Queen's University Genomics Lab at Ongwanada, Ongwanada Resource Centre, 191 Portsmouth Avenue, Kingston, ON K7M 8A6, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kevin Strychar
Received: 31 January 2015 / Revised: 30 May 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1627 KB, uploaded 25 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

This study involved the evaluation of algae and macrophyte species distributions in three wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) at a wastewater treatment plant in Ontario, Canada, which has experienced high pH levels at the final effluent and excessive algae growth during the summer since 2003. From samples collected from the system, the relative abundances of specific algae and aquatic plant (macrophyte) taxa were assessed and correlated to water chemistry data. A strong shift from the dominance of green algae, chlorophyceae, in WSP#2, to the dominance of aquatic macrophytes, embryophyta, in WSP#4, was observed and corresponded to field observations. Correlation of the abundances to nutrient parameters suggested that the macronutrient rich conditions in WSP#2 allowed floating green algae to proliferate against macrophytes. In WSP#1 and WSP#4, macrophytes competed against algae and thrived, due to their adaptability to lower nutrient conditions. The pH increases occurred primarily in WSP#2 and were not buffered or reduced in WSP#1 and WSP#4. Two alternatives strategies for pH control were recommended for the system: decreasing algae growth in WSP#2 through duckweed seeding or macronutrient loading reduction; or designing and implementing a constructed wetland (CW) in WSP#4 with soil and vegetation to buffer pH prior to release. View Full-Text
Keywords: algae; lagoons; macrophytes; metagenomics; wastewater algae; lagoons; macrophytes; metagenomics; wastewater
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wallace, J.; Champagne, P.; Hall, G.; Yin, Z.; Liu, X. Determination of Algae and Macrophyte Species Distribution in Three Wastewater Stabilization Ponds Using Metagenomics Analysis. Water 2015, 7, 3225-3242.

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