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Water 2015, 7(7), 3243-3262; doi:10.3390/w7073243

Rainfall Variability in the Huangfuchuang Watershed and Its Relationship with ENSO

1
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
2
College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
3
School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
4
Department of Geomatic Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Private Mail Box, Kumasi, Ghana
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1588 KB, uploaded 25 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

The impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon within the Huangfuchuan watershed, one of the major first-order sub-basins in the middle region of the Yellow River, has not clearly been established. Consequently, the co-varying relationships between rainfall and El Niño/La Niña spanning the period 1954 to 2010 are investigated. Trends and step changes in annual rainfall are investigated with the Mann-Kendall and the distribution free cumulative sum (CUSUM) tests. Wavelet transforms are employed to perform spectral analysis of temporal variations in rainfall rates within the watershed. Cross wavelet and wavelet coherence transforms are used to study localized co-varying relationships between rainfall and ENSO index. Results from statistical tests indicate that rainfall in the Huangfuchuan watershed is declining, although not significantly. In addition, wavelet coherency and cross wavelet analysis, and comparison of the extracted dominant annual rainfall and 2–7 year ENSO signals demonstrate that ENSO events impact Huangfuchuan rainfall with El Niño corresponding to rainfall decline and La Niña to rainfall increment with a semiannual to annual lag. View Full-Text
Keywords: ENSO; Huangfuchuan; China; wavelet; precipitation; Yellow River ENSO; Huangfuchuan; China; wavelet; precipitation; Yellow River
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Baddoo, T.D.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, D.; Andam-Akorful, S.A. Rainfall Variability in the Huangfuchuang Watershed and Its Relationship with ENSO. Water 2015, 7, 3243-3262.

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