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Water 2015, 7(5), 2314-2348; doi:10.3390/w7052314

Short Global History of Fountains

1
International Environmental History Group, University of Tampere, Tampere FI-33014, Finland
2
Department of Architecture Engineering, NTUA, PhDc, Athens 10682, Greece
3
Department of Physics and Geology, Perugia University, Perugia 06123, Italy
4
Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Center, Bohouth Str. Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt
5
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo, Fisciano 1-84084, Italy
6
Capacity Development in Water and Environmental Services, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere FI-33720, Finland
7
Yunnan Academy of Social Sciences, 577 Huan Cheng West Road, Kunming City 650034, China
8
Federutility, Rome 00192, Italy
9
Institute of Iraklion, National Foundation for Agricultural Research (N.AG.RE.F.), Iraklion 71307, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enedir Ghisi
Received: 26 November 2014 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015

Abstract

Water fountains are part of every human settlement, and historical and mythological stories. They are the source from which life-sustaining water was distributed to people until piped systems started providing fresh tap water inside buildings. In many places, people visit fountains to experience the freshness of running water, to prepare for prayers, or to make a wish. Fountains have also provided water for the people of cities under siege, and purified believers as part of holy rites. The Castalia shrine in Delphi, Greece, for its part, is a spot where various groups of people come to socialize, which greatly improves the quality of their lives. This paper is a look back through the history of fountains in various parts of the world. Experts from various areas have identified the historic, cultural, and ritualistic aspects of fountains and their findings are summarized. The paper concludes by providing a glimpse into the role of fountains in modern society and their continued influence in our lives today. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chinese civilizations; Egyptians; Etruscans; Minoans; Hellenes; Medieval times; Ottomans; Romans; water distribution; water supply systems Chinese civilizations; Egyptians; Etruscans; Minoans; Hellenes; Medieval times; Ottomans; Romans; water distribution; water supply systems
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Juuti, P.S.; Antoniou, G.P.; Dragoni, W.; El-Gohary, F.; De Feo, G.; Katko, T.S.; Rajala, R.P.; Zheng, X.Y.; Drusiani, R.; Angelakis, A.N. Short Global History of Fountains. Water 2015, 7, 2314-2348.

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