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Water 2015, 7(5), 2275-2292; doi:10.3390/w7052275

Effect of COD:SO4 2− Ratio, HRT and Linoleic Acid Concentration on Mesophilic Sulfate Reduction: Reactor Performance and Microbial Population Dynamics

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
2
Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
3
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
Current address: Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305343, Korea.
Current address: Central University of Gujarat, School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Sector-30, Gandhinagar 382030, India.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Say-Leong Ong
Received: 11 February 2015 / Revised: 7 May 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1227 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Biological sulfate (SO42−) reduction was examined in anaerobic sequential batch reactors (ASBRs) operated under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 12 to 36 h and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)/SO42−) ratios of 2.4, 1.6 and 0.8. Competition between SO42− reducing bacteria (SRBs), methane producing archaea (MPAs) and homoacetogens (HACs) was examined in controls and cultures treated with linoleic acid (LA). The ASBR performance was influenced by the COD/SO42− ratio in control cultures with a SO42− reduction of 87% at a COD/SO42− ratio of 0.8. At a 12 h HRT, in both control and LA treated cultures, greater than 75% SO42− removal was observed under all the conditions examined. In control reactors operating at a 36 h HRT, high levels of MPAs belonging to Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales were detected; however, in comparison, under low COD/SO42− ratio and with decreasing HRT conditions, a relative increase in SRBs belonging to Desulfovibrio and Desulfatibacillum was observed. Adding 0.5 g·L−1 LA suppressed Methanobacteriales, while increasing the LA concentration to 1 g·L−1 completely suppressed MPAs with a relative increase in SRBs. HACs belonging to Bacteroidetes were observed in the control and in cultures operated at 12 h HRT with a COD/SO42− ratio of 1.6 and fed 0.5 g·L−1 LA; however, with all other LA levels (0.5 and 1.0 g·L−1) and HRTs (12, 24 and 36 h), HACs were not detected. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfate reduction; sulfate reducing bacteria; methanogens; anaerobic sequencing batch reactor; COD/SO42− ratio sulfate reduction; sulfate reducing bacteria; methanogens; anaerobic sequencing batch reactor; COD/SO42− ratio
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Moon, C.; Singh, R.; Veeravalli, S.S.; Shanmugam, S.R.; Chaganti, S.R.; Lalman, J.A.; Heath, D.D. Effect of COD:SO4 2− Ratio, HRT and Linoleic Acid Concentration on Mesophilic Sulfate Reduction: Reactor Performance and Microbial Population Dynamics. Water 2015, 7, 2275-2292.

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