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Water 2015, 7(5), 1959-1968; doi:10.3390/w7051959

Preliminary Toxicological Evaluation of the River Danube Using in Vitro Bioassays

1
Institute of Hygiene, Microbiology and Environmental Medicine, Medical University Graz, Graz 8010, Austria
2
Division Water Hygiene, Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria
3
Interuniversity Cooperation Centre for Water and Health, Vienna, Austria
4
Institute of Chemical Engineering, Research Group Environmental Microbiology and Molecular Ecology, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna 1090, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Say-Leong Ong
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 20 April 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
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Abstract

The Joint Danube Survey 3, carried out in 2013 was the world’s biggest river research expedition of its kind. The course of the second largest river of Europe passes large cities like Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade and is fed from many tributaries like Inn, Thisza, Drava, Prut, Siret and Argeș. During the 6 weeks of shipping the 2375 km downstream the River Danube from Germany to the Black Sea an enormous number of water samples were analyzed and collected. A wide spectrum of scientific disciplines cooperated in analyzing the River Danube waters. For toxicological analysis, water samples were collected on the left, in the middle, and on the right side of the river at 68 JDS3 sampling points and frozen until the end of the Danube survey. All samples were analyzed with two in vitro bioassays tests (umuC and MTS). Testing umuC without S9 activation and MTS test did not show positive signals. But umuC investigations of the water samples came up with toxic signals on two stretches, when activated with S9 enzymes. The override of the limiting value of the umuC investigation with prior S9 activation started downstream Vienna (Austria) and was prolonged until Dunaföldvar (Hungary). This stretch of the River Danube passes a region that is highly industrialized, intensively used for agricultural purposes and also highly populated (Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest). The elevated values may indicate these influences. View Full-Text
Keywords: Joint Danube Survey; Joint Danube Survey 3 (JDS3); UV mutagenesis gene C (umuC); 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS); toxicity; river; surface water Joint Danube Survey; Joint Danube Survey 3 (JDS3); UV mutagenesis gene C (umuC); 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS); toxicity; river; surface water
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kittinger, C.; Baumert, R.; Folli, B.; Lipp, M.; Liebmann, A.; Kirschner, A.; Farnleitner, A.H.; Grisold, A.J.; Zarfel, G.E. Preliminary Toxicological Evaluation of the River Danube Using in Vitro Bioassays. Water 2015, 7, 1959-1968.

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