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Water 2015, 7(12), 6999-7021; doi:10.3390/w7126671

Simulation of Water Use Dynamics by Salix Bush in a Semiarid Shallow Groundwater Area of the Chinese Erdos Plateau

1
Department of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Xi’an Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, No. 438, Youyidong Road, Xi’an 710054, China
2
Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effect in Arid Region of Ministry of Education, Chang’An University, No. 126, Yata Road, Xi’an 710054, China
3
UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Department of Water Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 3015, Delft 2601 DA, The Netherlands
4
Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, Griffith University, 404 Musgrave Road, Coopers Plains QLD 4018, Australia
5
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Water Resources Section, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5048, Delft 2600 GA, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Magaly Koch
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5399 KB, uploaded 11 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

This study analyzed the water use of the Salix psammophila bush in a semi-arid area in northwest China using a Hydrus-1D model. The model incorporated the effect of thermally driven water flow coupling liquid water, water vapor and heat transport. The model was calibrated and validated using hourly field measurements of soil water content and temperature at different depths for a growing season of 154 days. Furthermore, another Hydrus-1D model was established to simulate environments with decreased heat, rainfall or temperature and an increased leaf area index using calibrated and validated parameters. Our results show that upward and downward thermally driven water vapor fluxes account for 0.11% and 0.28%, respectively, of the corresponding direction of total water flux during the bush’s growing season. Although the vapor flux is very small, simulations incorporating heat flow revealed alterations in the temperature and pressure head gradients over the root zone, especially during dry periods. Consequently, the cumulative contributions of groundwater to evapotranspiration (ETg) with heat flow and without heat flow were 26.9% and 40.6%, respectively, during the simulation period. Therefore, the cumulative contribution of groundwater to ETg is overestimated when heat flow is excluded. Thus, we recommended that heat transport be incorporated when evaluating ETg in arid and semi-arid areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: shallow groundwater table; heat transport; liquid water and water vapor fluxes; Salix bush; HYDRUS-1D; semi-arid shallow groundwater table; heat transport; liquid water and water vapor fluxes; Salix bush; HYDRUS-1D; semi-arid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, J.; Zhou, Y.; Hou, R.; Wenninger, J. Simulation of Water Use Dynamics by Salix Bush in a Semiarid Shallow Groundwater Area of the Chinese Erdos Plateau. Water 2015, 7, 6999-7021.

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