Next Article in Journal
Validation of a Locally Revised Topographic Index in Central New Jersey, USA
Next Article in Special Issue
Characterizing the Impact of River Barrage Construction on Stream-Aquifer Interactions, Korea
Previous Article in Journal
State of the Art of Online Monitoring and Control of the Coagulation Process
Previous Article in Special Issue
Obtaining the Thermal Structure of Lakes from the Air
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2015, 7(11), 6598-6615;

Quantifying the Response Time of a Lake–Groundwater Interacting System to Climatic Perturbation

Key Laboratory of Beijing for Water Quality Science and Water Environment Recovery Engineering, College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith Smettem
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 5 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Methods for Hydrological Process Understanding)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1293 KB, uploaded 17 November 2015]   |  


Response time, describing how quickly a disturbed system would reach a new equilibrium, has been helpful to hydrogeologists in characterizing and understanding the hydrogeological systems. This study examined the complex response times associated with lake–groundwater perturbed by climate. Simulated hydraulic heads and lake stage values derived from a 3-D, MODFLOW-based model were used to calculate the response times for a closed, groundwater-fed lake system. Although obviously coupled, the response times of the lake and groundwater systems were different from one another. Typically, the adjustments in hydraulic heads occurred more rapidly than lake stage. Response times for groundwaters close to the lake were controlled by the lake because of the slow transient response in stage. However, the influence of the lake declined toward the basin boundaries. This behavior occurred because critical parameters controlling the response-time behavior of the groundwater system (e.g., recharge rate) differed from those controlling the response-time behavior of the lake (e.g., bed leakance). An improved understanding of lake–groundwater behaviors have the potential to evaluate how lakes function as systems for recording paleoclimates. View Full-Text
Keywords: time lag; response time; lake; paleoclimate; MODFLOW; hydraulic conductivity time lag; response time; lake; paleoclimate; MODFLOW; hydraulic conductivity

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gong, Y.; Liu, G.; Schwartz, F.W. Quantifying the Response Time of a Lake–Groundwater Interacting System to Climatic Perturbation. Water 2015, 7, 6598-6615.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top