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Water 2015, 7(11), 6574-6597; doi:10.3390/w7116574

State of the Art of Online Monitoring and Control of the Coagulation Process

1
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 5003-IMT, Aas 1432, Norway
2
University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe, An der Wilhelmshöhe 44, Höxter 37671, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 27 September 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
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Abstract

Coagulation is an essential process for the removal of suspended and colloidal material from water and wastewater. However, no comprehensive or universally accepted mathematical description of the process has been developed so far. Therefore, process optimization and control is usually based on data from jar tests and simple flow-proportional dosing concepts, while more accurate concepts based on water quality parameters that can be measured online are emerging. In addition, there have been attempts to develop software sensors and control schemes that involve advanced mathematical analyses of these parameters. The paper presents an overview of the parameters and physical sensors that are used for feed-forward and feed-backward control schemes and the experiences that have been made with their implementation. Moreover, the development and use of software sensors is described. Finally, the practical applications of different control techniques are given in order to illustrate the state of the art of coagulation control. Some thoughts about research needs conclude this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: coagulation; water; wastewater; purification; modeling; feed-forward control; feedback control coagulation; water; wastewater; purification; modeling; feed-forward control; feedback control
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ratnaweera, H.; Fettig, J. State of the Art of Online Monitoring and Control of the Coagulation Process. Water 2015, 7, 6574-6597.

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