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Water 2015, 7(11), 6551-6573; doi:10.3390/w7116551

Empirical Estimation of Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus Concentration of Urban Water Bodies in China Using High Resolution IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

1
State Key Laboratory of Water Resources & Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2
Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for Water Resources Security, Wuhan 430072, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Y. Jun Xu and Aleksandra Drizo
Received: 26 August 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
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Abstract

Measuring total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) is important in managing heavy polluted urban waters in China. This study uses high spatial resolution IKONOS imagery with four multispectral bands, which roughly correspond to Landsat/TM bands 1–4, to determine TN and TP in small urban rivers and lakes in China. By using Lake Cihu and the lower reaches of Wen-Rui Tang (WRT) River as examples, this paper develops both multiple linear regressions (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models to estimate TN and TP concentrations from high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery and in situ water samples collected concurrently with overpassing satellite. The measured and estimated values of both MLR and ANN models are in good agreement (R2 > 0.85 and RMSE < 2.50). The empirical equations selected by MLR are more straightforward, whereas the estimated accuracy using ANN model is better (R2 > 0.86 and RMSE < 0.89). Results validate the potential of using high resolution IKONOS multispectral imagery to study the chemical states of small-sized urban water bodies. The spatial distribution maps of TN and TP concentrations generated by the ANN model can inform the decision makers of variations in water quality in Lake Cihu and lower reaches of WRT River. The approaches and equations developed in this study could be applied to other urban water bodies for water quality monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: total phosphorus; total nitrogen; remote sensing; IKONOS; ANN; MLR; urban water body total phosphorus; total nitrogen; remote sensing; IKONOS; ANN; MLR; urban water body
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Yuan, D.; Song, X. Empirical Estimation of Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus Concentration of Urban Water Bodies in China Using High Resolution IKONOS Multispectral Imagery. Water 2015, 7, 6551-6573.

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