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Water 2015, 7(11), 6017-6038; doi:10.3390/w7116017

Estimation of Rainfall Associated with Typhoons over the Ocean Using TRMM/TMI and Numerical Models

1
Department of Aircraft Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung 82047, Taiwan
2
Natural Sciences Teaching Center, Minghsin University of Science and Technology, Hsinchu 30401, Taiwan
3
Department of Electronic Engineering, Ta Hwa University of Science and Technology, Hsinchu 30740, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kwok-wing Chau
Received: 31 July 2015 / Revised: 23 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 3 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Meta-Heuristic Techniques in Rainfall-Runoff Modelling)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2584 KB, uploaded 3 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

This study quantitatively estimated the precipitation associated with a typhoon in the northwestern Pacific Ocean by using a physical algorithm which included the Weather Research and Forecasting model, Radiative Transfer for TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder model, and data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)/TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM/Precipitation Radar (PR). First, a prior probability distribution function (PDF) was constructed using over three million rain rate retrievals from the TRMM/PR data for the period 2002–2010 over the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, brightness temperatures for 15 typhoons that occurred over the northwestern Pacific Ocean were simulated using a microwave radiative transfer model and a conditional PDF was obtained for these typhoons. The aforementioned physical algorithm involved using a posterior PDF. A posterior PDF was obtained by combining the prior and conditional PDFs. Finally, the rain rate associated with a typhoon was estimated by inputting the observations of the TMI (attenuation indices at 10, 19, 37 GHz) into the posterior PDF (lookup table). Results based on rain rate retrievals indicated that rainband locations with the heaviest rainfall showed qualitatively similar horizontal distributions. The correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of the rain rate estimation were 0.63 and 4.45 mm·h−1, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error for convective rainfall were 0.78 and 7.25 mm·h−1, respectively, and those for stratiform rainfall were 0.58 and 9.60 mm·h−1, respectively. The main contribution of this study is introducing an approach to quickly and accurately estimate the typhoon precipitation, and remove the need for complex calculations. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantitative precipitation estimate; WRF model; RTTOV model; prior probability distribution function; conditional PDF; posterior PDF quantitative precipitation estimate; WRF model; RTTOV model; prior probability distribution function; conditional PDF; posterior PDF
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yeh, N.-C.; Liu, C.-C.; Chen, W.-J. Estimation of Rainfall Associated with Typhoons over the Ocean Using TRMM/TMI and Numerical Models. Water 2015, 7, 6017-6038.

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