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Water 2015, 7(10), 5705-5730; doi:10.3390/w7105705

Mitigating the Risk of Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: The Case of Jordan

1
Twente Water Centre, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede 7500AE, The Netherlands
2
Water and Environmental Research and Study Center, University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
3
Graduate School of Humanities, University of Amsterdam, Spuistraat 134, Amsterdam 1012 VB, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael B. Abbott
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 5 October 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 21 October 2015
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Abstract

Jordan faces great internal water scarcity and pollution, conflict over trans-boundary waters, and strong dependency on external water resources through trade. This paper analyzes these issues and subsequently reviews options to reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. Based on estimates of water footprint, water availability, and virtual water trade, we find that groundwater consumption is nearly double the groundwater availability, water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity, and Jordan’s external virtual water import dependency is 86%. The review of response options yields 10 ingredients for a strategy for Jordan to mitigate the risks of extreme water scarcity and dependency. With respect to these ingredients, Jordan’s current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Actual implementation of the plans in the national water strategy (against existing oppositions) would be a first step. However, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption pattern of Jordanian consumers. Moreover, unsustainable exploitation of the fossil Disi aquifer should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful consideration regarding the sustainability of their energy supply. View Full-Text
Keywords: water scarcity; water pollution; water footprint; virtual water trade; water dependency; water risk; water security; sustainability; water policy water scarcity; water pollution; water footprint; virtual water trade; water dependency; water risk; water security; sustainability; water policy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schyns, J.F.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Mekonnen, M.M.; Schyns, M. Mitigating the Risk of Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: The Case of Jordan. Water 2015, 7, 5705-5730.

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