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Water 2014, 6(8), 2449-2466; doi:10.3390/w6082449
Article

The Impact of Building Coverage in the Metropolitan Area on the Flow Calculation

1
, 1,2,* , 3
 and 1
1 Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, No.1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan 2 Department of Civil and Disaster Prevention Engineering, National United University, 1, Lienda, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan 3 Department of Architecture, National United University, 1, Lienda, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 5 August 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published: 14 August 2014
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Abstract

Due to the special hydrographic and physiographic conditions in Taiwan, flooding is likely to occur in the middle and lower reaches of a plain whenever serious rainstorm events occurred. Note worthily, the loss of lives and property caused by flooding are always most considerable in a metropolitan area, and the densely distributed buildings would, not only increase the impervious area, but also decrease the water storage area. Furthermore, a large number of intensive buildings have changed the original land flow conditions, resulting in a beam shrinking flow and the additional form drag phenomenon, which makes the flooding phenomenon more serious. The main purpose of this research is to find the correlation between building coverage and the Manning’s coefficient n through a water flume model experiment. To probe into this issue, the Manning’s roughness adjustment is further divided into a part caused by the surface impedance and a part caused by the building impedance. Thus, building coverage can be added to the general computing grid to reflect the flooding situation with buildings. The two-dimensional inundation model, based on this research, was applied to Taichung City for an actual case simulation. The simulation result of Typhoon Kalmaegi showed that the presented model can obtain a more accurate flooding situation in urban area by considering the blockage effects of buildings and adjusting the surface roughness.
Keywords: flume model experiment; Manning’s roughness adjustments; two-dimensional inundation model flume model experiment; Manning’s roughness adjustments; two-dimensional inundation model
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, C.-J.; Hsu, M.-H.; Teng, W.-H.; Wang, Y.-H. The Impact of Building Coverage in the Metropolitan Area on the Flow Calculation. Water 2014, 6, 2449-2466.

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