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Water 2014, 6(8), 2467-2481; doi:10.3390/w6082467
Article

Estimating Groundwater Recharge in the Semiarid Al-Khazir Gomal Basin, North Iraq

1,2,*  and 1
Received: 20 May 2014; in revised form: 22 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
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Abstract: The mean annual recharge of Al-Khazir Gomal Basin was estimated as a basis for decision makers regarding the renewability and sustainability of groundwater. For this purpose, two approaches were used: hydrograph analysis and water table fluctuation (WTF). The long-term mean daily stream-flow records of Al-Khazir River (1969–1981) were used to estimate groundwater discharge by base-flow hydrograph separation and displacement recession curve methods. Four base-flow separation methods were used; one is the graphical separation method, and three are automated separation methods included in the web-based Hydrograph Analysis Tool. The annual recharge estimated by WTF was 111.6 mm/y, and the average annual recharge estimated by the four base-flow separation methods was 125.8 mm/y. Estimating recharge by the water table fluctuation method does not incorporate spatial variability contained in the whole watershed, because the specific yield did not represent the entire basin. However, the hydrograph analysis method can give a comprehensive estimation of the net integrated recharge for the entire watershed, which includes different recharge mechanisms. The displacement recession curve method deviates a lot (>30 mm/y) from the other methods, which indicates that this method may not be suitable to apply in such large watersheds.
Keywords: hydrograph analysis; semiarid region; regional groundwater recharge; water table fluctuation hydrograph analysis; semiarid region; regional groundwater recharge; water table fluctuation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jassas, H.; Merkel, B. Estimating Groundwater Recharge in the Semiarid Al-Khazir Gomal Basin, North Iraq. Water 2014, 6, 2467-2481.

AMA Style

Jassas H, Merkel B. Estimating Groundwater Recharge in the Semiarid Al-Khazir Gomal Basin, North Iraq. Water. 2014; 6(8):2467-2481.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jassas, Hussein; Merkel, Broder. 2014. "Estimating Groundwater Recharge in the Semiarid Al-Khazir Gomal Basin, North Iraq." Water 6, no. 8: 2467-2481.


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