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Water 2014, 6(7), 1985-1999; doi:10.3390/w6071985

Water End-Uses in Low-Income Houses in Southern Brazil

Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis-SC 88040-900, Brazil
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Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 8 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Consumption and Water End-uses in Buildings)
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Abstract

Knowing water consumption patterns in buildings is key information for water planning. This article aims to characterize the water consumption pattern and water end-uses in low-income houses in the region of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Data were collected by interviewing householders, as well as by measuring the flow rate of existing water fixtures and appliances. The results indicated that the shower was the fixture with the largest water consumption in households, i.e., about 30%–36% of total water consumption on average, followed by the toilet (18%–20%). The surveyed households consumed from 111 to 152 L/capita·day on average, based on different income ranges. No correlation was found between income and water consumption. The results of this study can be used to estimate the consumption of water for new buildings, as well as to develop integrated water management strategies in low-income developments, in Florianópolis, such as water-saving plumbing fixtures, rainwater harvesting, and greywater reuse. Likely, there would be a deferral of capital investments in new water assets for enhancing water and wastewater services by saving water in low-income houses. View Full-Text
Keywords: water consumption pattern; water end uses; socioeconomic characteristics; low-income houses water consumption pattern; water end uses; socioeconomic characteristics; low-income houses
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Marinoski, A.K.; Vieira, A.S.; Silva, A.S.; Ghisi, E. Water End-Uses in Low-Income Houses in Southern Brazil. Water 2014, 6, 1985-1999.

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