Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Water 2014, 6(6), 1785-1806; doi:10.3390/w6061785
Article

Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol and Phenol Derivatives Using a Nano-TiO2 Catalyst: Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Factors Using Response Surface Methodology

,
, *  and
Received: 23 April 2014; in revised form: 27 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [570 KB, uploaded 17 June 2014]
Abstract: Due to the toxicity effects and endocrine disrupting properties of phenolic compounds, their removal from water and wastewater has gained widespread global attention. In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of phenolic compounds in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles and UV light was investigated. A full factorial design consisting of three factors at three levels was used to examine the effect of particle size, temperature and reactant type on the apparent degradation rate constant. The individual effect of TiO2 particle size (5, 10 and 32 nm), temperature (23, 30 and 37 °C) and reactant type (phenol, o-cresol and m-cresol) on the apparent degradation rate constant was determined. A regression model was developed to relate the apparent degradation constant to the various factors. The largest photocatalytic activity was observed at an optimum TiO2 particle size of 10 nm for all reactants. The apparent degradation rate constant trend was as follows: o-cresol > m-cresol > phenol. The ANOVA data indicated no significant interaction between the experimental factors. The lowest activation energy was observed for o-cresol degradation using 5-nm TiO2 particles. A maximum degradation rate constant of 0.0138 min−1 was recorded for o-cresol at 37 °C and a TiO2 particle size of 13 nm at a D-optimality value of approximately 0.98. The response model adequately related the apparent degradation rate constant to the factors within the range of factors under consideration.
Keywords: photocatalysis; titanium dioxide; o-cresol; m-cresol; phenol; statistical modeling; quantitative factors; qualitative factors photocatalysis; titanium dioxide; o-cresol; m-cresol; phenol; statistical modeling; quantitative factors; qualitative factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Choquette-Labbé, M.; Shewa, W.A.; Lalman, J.A.; Shanmugam, S.R. Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol and Phenol Derivatives Using a Nano-TiO2 Catalyst: Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Factors Using Response Surface Methodology. Water 2014, 6, 1785-1806.

AMA Style

Choquette-Labbé M, Shewa WA, Lalman JA, Shanmugam SR. Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol and Phenol Derivatives Using a Nano-TiO2 Catalyst: Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Factors Using Response Surface Methodology. Water. 2014; 6(6):1785-1806.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choquette-Labbé, Marissa; Shewa, Wudneh A.; Lalman, Jerald A.; Shanmugam, Saravanan R. 2014. "Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol and Phenol Derivatives Using a Nano-TiO2 Catalyst: Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Factors Using Response Surface Methodology." Water 6, no. 6: 1785-1806.


Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert