Water 2012, 4(3), 629-649; doi:10.3390/w4030629

Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination

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Received: 4 July 2012; in revised form: 11 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 3 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water Desalination)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This review provides a global overview of microporous silica based membranes for desalination via pervaporation with a focus on membrane synthesis and processing, transport mechanisms and current state of the art membrane performance. Most importantly, the recent development and novel concepts for improving the hydro-stability and separating performance of silica membranes for desalination are critically examined. Research into silica based membranes for desalination has focussed on three primary methods for improving the hydro-stability. These include incorporating carbon templates into the microporous silica both as surfactants and hybrid organic-inorganic structures and incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into the silica matrix. The literature examined identified that only metal oxide silica membranes have demonstrated high salt rejections under a variety of feed concentrations, reasonable fluxes and unaltered performance over long-term operation. As this is an embryonic field of research several target areas for researchers were discussed including further improvement of the membrane materials, but also regarding the necessity of integrating waste or solar heat sources into the final process design to ensure cost competitiveness with conventional reverse osmosis processes.
Keywords: desalination; pervaporation; microporous silica; metal oxide silica; hybrid silica; carbon template silica
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elma, M.; Yacou, C.; Wang, D.K.; Smart, S.; Diniz da Costa, J.C. Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination. Water 2012, 4, 629-649.

AMA Style

Elma M, Yacou C, Wang DK, Smart S, Diniz da Costa JC. Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination. Water. 2012; 4(3):629-649.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elma, Muthia; Yacou, Christelle; Wang, David K.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C. 2012. "Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination." Water 4, no. 3: 629-649.

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