Water 2011, 3(4), 1005-1030; doi:10.3390/w3041005
Review

The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Reproduction, Early Development and Settlement of Marine Organisms

Received: 18 September 2011; in revised form: 9 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 October 2011 / Published: 7 November 2011
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Predicting the impact of warming and acidifying on oceans on the early development life history stages of invertebrates although difficult, is essential in order to anticipate the severity and consequences of future climate change. This review summarises the current literature and meta-analyses on the early life-history stages of invertebrates including fertilisation, larval development and the implications for dispersal and settlement of populations. Although fertilisation appears robust to near future predictions of ocean acidification, larval development is much more vulnerable and across invertebrate groups, evidence indicates that the impacts may be severe. This is especially for those many marine organisms which start to calcify in their larval and/or juvenile stages. Species-specificity and variability in responses and current gaps in the literature are highlighted, including the need for studies to investigate the total effects of climate change including the synergistic impact of temperature, and the need for long-term multigenerational experiments to determine whether vulnerable invertebrate species have the capacity to adapt to elevations in atmospheric CO2 over the next century.
Keywords: ocean acidification; temperature; reproduction; larvae; settlement; review; echinoderms; molluscs; crustaceans; fish; corals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ross, P.M.; Parker, L.; O’Connor, W.A.; Bailey, E.A. The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Reproduction, Early Development and Settlement of Marine Organisms. Water 2011, 3, 1005-1030.

AMA Style

Ross PM, Parker L, O’Connor WA, Bailey EA. The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Reproduction, Early Development and Settlement of Marine Organisms. Water. 2011; 3(4):1005-1030.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ross, Pauline M.; Parker, Laura; O’Connor, Wayne A.; Bailey, Elizabeth A. 2011. "The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Reproduction, Early Development and Settlement of Marine Organisms." Water 3, no. 4: 1005-1030.

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