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The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Reproduction, Early Development and Settlement of Marine Organisms
School of Science, College of Health and Science, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC 1797, Australia
Industry and Investment NSW, Port Stephens Fisheries Centre, Taylors Beach, New South Wales 2316, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2011; in revised form: 9 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 October 2011 / Published: 7 November 2011
Abstract: Predicting the impact of warming and acidifying on oceans on the early development life history stages of invertebrates although difficult, is essential in order to anticipate the severity and consequences of future climate change. This review summarises the current literature and meta-analyses on the early life-history stages of invertebrates including fertilisation, larval development and the implications for dispersal and settlement of populations. Although fertilisation appears robust to near future predictions of ocean acidification, larval development is much more vulnerable and across invertebrate groups, evidence indicates that the impacts may be severe. This is especially for those many marine organisms which start to calcify in their larval and/or juvenile stages. Species-specificity and variability in responses and current gaps in the literature are highlighted, including the need for studies to investigate the total effects of climate change including the synergistic impact of temperature, and the need for long-term multigenerational experiments to determine whether vulnerable invertebrate species have the capacity to adapt to elevations in atmospheric CO2 over the next century.
Keywords: ocean acidification; temperature; reproduction; larvae; settlement; review; echinoderms; molluscs; crustaceans; fish; corals
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Ross, P.M.; Parker, L.; O’Connor, W.A.; Bailey, E.A. The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Reproduction, Early Development and Settlement of Marine Organisms. Water 2011, 3, 1005-1030.
Ross PM, Parker L, O’Connor WA, Bailey EA. The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Reproduction, Early Development and Settlement of Marine Organisms. Water. 2011; 3(4):1005-1030.
Ross, Pauline M.; Parker, Laura; O’Connor, Wayne A.; Bailey, Elizabeth A. 2011. "The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Reproduction, Early Development and Settlement of Marine Organisms." Water 3, no. 4: 1005-1030.