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Water 2018, 10(7), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070882

Removal of Total Dissolved Solids from Reverse Osmosis Concentrates from a Municipal Wastewater Reclamation Plant by Aerobic Granular Sludge

1
Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 03367, Korea
2
Aquatic Ecosystem Conservation Division, Water Environment Management Bureau, Ministry of Environment, Government Complex-Sejong, 11 Doum 6-ro, Sejong-Special Self-Governing City 30103, Korea
3
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
4
Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, Korea
These authors contributed equally to the current work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Abstract

Reverse osmosis (RO) has been widely utilized in water reclamation plants and produces a concentrated brine (or reject) stream as a by-product. RO concentrates (ROC) contain vast quantities of salts and dissolved organic matter, such as biomass and humic-like substances, which hinder biological wastewater treatment (such as biological nitrogen removal). In this study, we cultivated granular sludge in an aerobic sequencing batch reactor to treat municipal wastewater with an organic loading rate of 2.1–4.3 kgCOD/m3 day at room temperature (25 °C), and remove total dissolved solids (TDS) from ROC by biosorption, with aerobic granular sludge as a novel biosorbent. The results of the kinetic experiments demonstrated that TDS removal by aerobic granular sludge was more rapid than that by other coagulants and adsorbents (i.e., calcium hydroxide, polyaluminum chloride, activated sludge, powdered activated carbon, granular activated carbon, and zeolite) under optimal treatment conditions. The biosorption of TDS on the aerobic granular sludge was well-modeled by the Lagergren first-order model, with a maximum biosorption capacity of 1698 mg/g. Thus, aerobic granular sludge could be effective as a regenerable biosorbent for removing the TDS in ROC from municipal wastewater. View Full-Text
Keywords: aerobic granular sludge; biosorption; removal; reverse osmosis concentrates; total dissolved solids aerobic granular sludge; biosorption; removal; reverse osmosis concentrates; total dissolved solids
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, D.-H.; Park, S.; Yoon, Y.; Park, C.M. Removal of Total Dissolved Solids from Reverse Osmosis Concentrates from a Municipal Wastewater Reclamation Plant by Aerobic Granular Sludge. Water 2018, 10, 882.

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