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Water 2018, 10(5), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050648

Removal of Pb2+ from Water by Synthesized Tannin Resins from Invasive South African Trees

1
Institute of Chemical and Biotechnology, Vaal University of Technology, Southern Gauteng Science and Technology Park, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1911, South Africa
2
Department of Biochemistry, Bingham University, Karu P.M.B 005, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

Contamination of water by Pb 2 + and the threat of invasive vegetation affects the quality and quantity of water accessible to all life forms and has become a primary concern to South Africa and the world at large. This paper synthesized, characterized, and evaluated the resins from tannin-rich invasive Acacia species as an environmentally benign Pb 2 + adsorbent. The analysis of the pore volume and surface area of the resins reveals a small pore dimension of 9 × 10−3 cc/g and large surface area (2.31–8.65 m2/g), presenting suitable physical parameters for adsorption of Pb 2 + . Langmuir model offers the best correlation data at pH 6 with maximum monolayer coverage capacity of 189.30, 105.70 and 98.82 mg/g for silver, black and green wattle tannin resins in aqueous solutions, respectively. The kinetic data suitably fits into a pseudo-second-order model, with the Dubinin–Radushkevich adsorption energy (E) 7.07 KJ/mol and intra-particle diffusion model confirming an associated physisorption process within the bio-sorption system. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) data of the resins were informative of the high thermal stability and chelating functionality such as -OH and -NH2 responsible for the removal of Pb 2 + . All the resins showed good adsorption characteristics while silver wattle tannin resin has the best adsorption capacity compared to black and green wattle tannin resins. This study provides a prototype adsorbent from invasive plants for the removal of Pb 2 + in water. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acacia species; adsorption; cross-linking; diffractograms; micrograph; thermogravimetric analysis Acacia species; adsorption; cross-linking; diffractograms; micrograph; thermogravimetric analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Okoli, B.J.; Shilowa, P.M.; Anyanwu, G.O.; Modise, J.S. Removal of Pb2+ from Water by Synthesized Tannin Resins from Invasive South African Trees. Water 2018, 10, 648.

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