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Water 2018, 10(4), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040469

Effect of the Junction Angle on Turbulent Flow at a Hydraulic Confluence

1
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Università della Calabria, 87036 Rende, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Università degli Studi di Enna ‘Kore’, 94100 Enna, Italy
3
CERIS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal
4
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 February 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence in River and Maritime Hydraulics)
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Abstract

Despite the existing knowledge concerning the hydrodynamic processes at river junctions, there is still a lack of information regarding the particular case of low width and discharge ratios, which are the typical conditions of mountain river confluences. Aiming at filling this gap, laboratory and numerical experiments were conducted, comparing the results with literature findings. Ten different confluences from 45 to 90 were simulated to study the effects of the junction angle on the flow structure, using a numerical code that solves the 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the k- ϵ turbulence closure model. The results showed that the higher the junction angle, the wider and longer the retardation zone at the upstream junction corner and the separation zone, and the greater the flow deflection at the entrance of the tributary into the post-confluence channel. Furthermore, it was shown that the maximum streamwise velocity does not necessarily increase with the junction angle and that it is not always located in the contraction section. View Full-Text
Keywords: channel confluences; junction angle; flow deflection zone; flow retardation zone; flow separation zone; numerical modelling; PANORMUS channel confluences; junction angle; flow deflection zone; flow retardation zone; flow separation zone; numerical modelling; PANORMUS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Penna, N.; De Marchis, M.; Canelas, O.B.; Napoli, E.; Cardoso, A.H.; Gaudio, R. Effect of the Junction Angle on Turbulent Flow at a Hydraulic Confluence. Water 2018, 10, 469.

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