Next Article in Journal
Air-Pollutant Emissions from Agricultural Burning in Mae Chaem Basin, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
Next Article in Special Issue
Multi-Year Continuous PM2.5 Measurements with the Federal Equivalent Method SHARP 5030 and Comparisons to Filter-Based and TEOM Measurements in Ontario, Canada
Previous Article in Journal
Observed Correlation between Aerosol and Cloud Base Height for Low Clouds at Baltimore and New York, United States
Previous Article in Special Issue
Atmospheric Distribution of PAHs and Quinones in the Gas and PM1 Phases in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, Mexico: Sources and Health Risk
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Atmosphere 2018, 9(4), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9040144

Hazard Quotients, Hazard Indexes, and Cancer Risks of Toxic Metals in PM10 during Firework Displays

1
NIDA Center for Research & Development of Disaster Prevention & Management, School of Social and Environmental Development, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), 118 Moo 3, Sereethai Road, Klong-Chan, Bangkapi, Bangkok 10240, Thailand
2
SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEECAS), Xi’an 710075, China
3
Department of Regional Activation, Faculty of Regional Policy, Takasaki City University of Economics, 1300 Kaminamie, Takasaki, Gunma 370-0801, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 6 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Particulate Matters: Composition, Sources, and Exposure)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [9475 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Bonfire night is a worldwide phenomenon given to numerous annual celebrations characterised by bonfires and fireworks. Since Thailand has no national ambient air quality standards for metal particulates, it is important to investigate the impacts of particulate injections on elevations of air pollutants and the ecological health impacts resulting from firework displays. In this investigation, Pb and Ba were considered potential firework tracers because their concentrations were significantly higher during the episode, and lower than/comparable with minimum detection limits during other periods, indicating that their elevated concentrations were principally due to pyrotechnic displays. Pb/Ca, Pb/Al, Pb/Mg, and Pb/Cu can be used to pin-point emissions from firework displays. Air mass backward trajectories (72 h) from the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model indicated that areas east and north-east of the study site were the main sources of the airborne particles. Although the combined risk associated with levels of Pb, Cr, Co., Ni, Zn, As, Cd, V, and Mn was far below the standards mentioned in international guidelines, the lifetime cancer risks associated with As and Cr levels exceeded US-EPA guidelines, and may expose inhabitants of surrounding areas of Bangkok to an elevated cancer risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: firework displays; toxic metals; principal component analysis; risk assessment; hazard quotient; hazard index firework displays; toxic metals; principal component analysis; risk assessment; hazard quotient; hazard index
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pongpiachan, S.; Iijima, A.; Cao, J. Hazard Quotients, Hazard Indexes, and Cancer Risks of Toxic Metals in PM10 during Firework Displays. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 144.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top