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Atmosphere 2018, 9(4), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9040137

Atmospheric Distribution of PAHs and Quinones in the Gas and PM1 Phases in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, Mexico: Sources and Health Risk

1
Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco A.C. (CIATEJ), Unidad de Tecnología Ambiental, Av. Normalistas No. 800, Col. Colinas de la Normal, Guadalajara-Jalisco C.P. 44270, Mexico
2
Posgrado Interinstitucional en Ciencia y Tecnología (PICYT), Sede CIATEJ, Av. Normalistas No. 800, Col. Colinas de la Normal, Guadalajara-Jalisco C.P. 44270, Mexico
3
CONACYT-Centro de Investigaciones Químicas-IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca C.P. 62209, Morelos, Mexico
4
CONACYT-Consorcio CENTROMET, Camino a Los Olvera 44, Los Olvera, Corregidora, Querétaro 76904, Mexico
5
Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigación Científica S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico
Deceased.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 January 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Particulate Matters: Composition, Sources, and Exposure)
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Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and quinones in the gas phase and as submicron particles raise concerns due to their potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. The majority of existing studies have investigated the formation of quinones, but it is also important to consider both the primary and secondary sources to estimate their contributions. The objectives of this study were to characterize PAHs and quinones in the gas and particulate matter (PM1) phases in order to identify phase distributions, sources, and cancer risk at two urban monitoring sites in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (GMA) in Mexico. The simultaneous gas and PM1 phases samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography–mass spectrometer. The lifetime lung cancer risk (LCR) due to PAH exposure was calculated to be 1.7 × 10−3, higher than the recommended risk value of 10−6, indicating a potential health hazard. Correlations between parent PAHs, criteria pollutants, and meteorological parameters suggest that primary sources are the main contributors to the Σ8 Quinones concentrations in PM1, while the secondary formation of 5,12-naphthacenequinone and 9,10-anthraquinone may contribute less to the observed concentration of quinones. Additionally, naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene in PM1, suggest photochemical degradation into unidentified species. Further research is needed to determine how these compounds are formed. View Full-Text
Keywords: submicron particles; gas-particle; risk assessment; mobile emissions submicron particles; gas-particle; risk assessment; mobile emissions
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Ojeda-Castillo, V.; López-López, A.; Hernández-Mena, L.; Murillo-Tovar, M.A.; Díaz-Torres, J.J.; Hernández-Paniagua, I.Y.; del Real-Olvera, J.; León-Becerril, E. Atmospheric Distribution of PAHs and Quinones in the Gas and PM1 Phases in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, Mexico: Sources and Health Risk. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 137.

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