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Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9050191

Multi-Year Continuous PM2.5 Measurements with the Federal Equivalent Method SHARP 5030 and Comparisons to Filter-Based and TEOM Measurements in Ontario, Canada

1
Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, 125 Resources Road, Toronto, ON M9P 3V6, Canada
2
Air Quality Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 13 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Particulate Matters: Composition, Sources, and Exposure)
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Abstract

Continuous monitoring of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is important to provide near-real-time air quality information for public health protection, especially when ambient levels are elevated. The Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM), operated at 30 °C with a sample equilibration system (SES), was used to measure PM2.5 hourly concentrations from 2002 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada. In January 2013, the Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) Synchronized Hybrid Ambient Real-time Particulate (SHARP) model 5030 monitors replaced the TEOM devices at all monitoring stations across the province to improve measurements in cold months. Continuous PM2.5 measurements from 2013 to 2016 showed good reliability of the SHARP 5030 with an average 98% valid hourly data reported to the public. Collocated measurements indicated that 24 h averages of the SHARP 5030 were comparable to those by the filter-based integrated samplers including the Federal Reference Method (FRM), and the FEM dichotomous (Dichot) and Speciation samplers. The slope and intercept of the linear regression between the SHARP 5030 and the FRM results generally met the acceptance limits for PM2.5 Class III FEM designation, and the ratio of FEM/FRM was 1.0 or 1.1. Twenty-four-hour averages of the SHARP 5030 also correlated well with the collocated 24 h Dichot and Speciation results. The difference percentages between SHARP 5030 and 24 h integrated results were found to be larger at low rather than at high PM2.5 levels, but not dependent on seasons. Absolute differences ranged from 0 to 16 µg/m3 and root mean square differences ranged from 2.0 to 2.3 µg/m3 when the SHARP 5030 was compared with the FRM, Dichot, and Speciation samplers. A simplified approach was further developed to correct historical TEOM data for cold months to continue long-term trend analyses based on collocated measurements at eight stations where PM2.5 emission sources varied. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; SHARP 5030; collocated measurements; Federal Equivalent Method; Federal Reference Method PM2.5; SHARP 5030; collocated measurements; Federal Equivalent Method; Federal Reference Method
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Su, Y.; Sofowote, U.; Debosz, J.; White, L.; Munoz, A. Multi-Year Continuous PM2.5 Measurements with the Federal Equivalent Method SHARP 5030 and Comparisons to Filter-Based and TEOM Measurements in Ontario, Canada. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 191.

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