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Atmosphere 2015, 6(10), 1521-1538; doi:10.3390/atmos6101521

Optical Properties of Fine Particulate Matter in Upper Silesia, Poland

1
Department of Air Protection, Silesian University of Technology, 22B Konarskiego Street, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
2
Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Skłodowskiej-Curie Street, 41-819 Zabrze, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giovanni Pitari and Gabriele Curcpi
Received: 20 September 2015 / Revised: 12 October 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Radiative Effects)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3103 KB, uploaded 20 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Ambient particles whose aerodynamic diameters were not greater than 2.5 µm (fine fraction of Particulate Matter; PM2.5) and 1 µm (PM1; sub-fraction of PM2.5) were sampled at three sites in Upper Silesia (Poland): urban background site, rural background site, and urban traffic site. In total, 240 samples were collected between 2 August 2009 and 27 December 2010. The reflectance of the collected PM1 and PM2.5 samples was determined with a digital smoke stain reflectometer. The 24-h courses and seasonal changes of three determined optical parameters for PM1 and PM2.5 (absorption coefficient (a), mass absorption (σ), and mean light reflection coefficient (Rav)) were illustrated and discussed. The mean values of the regional background absorption coefficient (a) were 1.27 × 10−5 m−1 and 0.87 × 10−5 m−1 for PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. In Katowice (urban background), the mean absorption levels were 2.37 × 10−5 m−1 and 2.09 × 10−5 m−1 for PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The highest values of the absorption coefficient for both PM fractions were found close to the highway (urban traffic site). In the heating season (winter), the absorption coefficient (a) for PM2.5 and PM1 increased significantly when compared with the non-heating season. The obtained results confirmed the thesis about the significant increase in the elemental PM2.5-bound carbon concentration caused by the intensified hard coal combustion in Upper Silesia in winter. Moreover, it turned out that the increase in the concentration of the PM2.5-bound sulphates was even higher, which resulted in the relative decrease of the elemental carbon content in this PM fraction in some areas. Consequently, the mass absorption value dropped there as well. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; PM1; absorption coefficient; light reflection coefficient; elemental carbon; black carbon; sulphates; municipal emission; hard coal combustion; exhaust emission PM2.5; PM1; absorption coefficient; light reflection coefficient; elemental carbon; black carbon; sulphates; municipal emission; hard coal combustion; exhaust emission
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pastuszka, J.S.; Rogula-Kozłowska, W.; Klejnowski, K.; Rogula-Kopiec, P. Optical Properties of Fine Particulate Matter in Upper Silesia, Poland. Atmosphere 2015, 6, 1521-1538.

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