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Atmosphere 2015, 6(10), 1507-1520; doi:10.3390/atmos6101507

Combining DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light with Echo State Network for Prediction of Daily PM2.5 Average Concentrations in Shanghai, China

1
School of Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China
2
Qinhuangdao City Environmental Protection Bureau, Qinhuangdao 066000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert W. Talbot
Received: 19 June 2015 / Revised: 28 September 2015 / Accepted: 13 October 2015 / Published: 19 October 2015
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Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of nighttime light data, acquired with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) owned by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in predicting urban daily particulate matter (PM)2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm average concentrations. To achieve the purpose, we firstly extracted two night light indices, the Nighttime Light Intensity Index (NLII) and the Nighttime Saturated Light Area Index (NSLAI) from DMSP/OLS images. Through Gaussian fitting of the relationship between the indices and the daily PM2.5 concentrations data released by the government, we found that the intraday nighttime light indices were all more relevant with the PM2.5 average concentrations of the next day in Shanghai. Therefore, the 56 sets of data, the light indices were collected from 3 November 2013 to 28 December 2013, the daily PM2.5 concentrations data were collected from 4 November 2013 to 29 December 2013, and these were divided into two parts. The first 40 sets were used for training the model of echo state network (ESN). The last 16 sets were used for testing. The value of R2 of predicted results was as high as 0.6318. In summary, the effectiveness of nighttime light data that used for the prediction of urban daily PM2.5 average concentrations was verified in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; DMSP/OLS; nighttime light; NOAA; echo state network; Gaussian fitting PM2.5; DMSP/OLS; nighttime light; NOAA; echo state network; Gaussian fitting
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, Z.; Xia, X.; Liu, X.; Qian, Z. Combining DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light with Echo State Network for Prediction of Daily PM2.5 Average Concentrations in Shanghai, China. Atmosphere 2015, 6, 1507-1520.

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