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Atmosphere 2015, 6(10), 1462-1486; doi:10.3390/atmos6101462

Long-Term Trend and Seasonal Variability of Horizontal Visibility in Nigerian Troposphere

School of Physics, UniversitySains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang 11800, Malaysia
Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Katsina P.M.B 2052, Nigeria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giovanni Pitari and Gabriele Curci
Received: 24 August 2015 / Revised: 28 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 2 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Radiative Effects)
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A study of the long-term variability; trend and characteristics of visibility in four zones of Nigeria was carried out. Visibility and other meteorological data from NOAA-NCDC and aerosol index data over Nigeria during 1984–2013 are analyzed using time series and simple regression model. There are significant decreasing trends for every region and season during the 30-years period; the fluctuations exhibited nearly similar pattern. The 30-year mean visibilities for the four zones (Sahel; North Central; Southern; and Coastal) were 13.8 ± 3.9; 14.3 ± 4.2; 13.6 ± 3.5 and 12.8 ± 3.1 km with decreasing trends at the rates of 0.08; 0.06; 0.02 and 0.02 km/year. In all the zones; visibilities were better in summer while worse in Harmattan (dry season). During summer visibility was best in Sahel and North-central; however; in Harmattan visibility was best in southern and coastal zones. It was best between May and June (17.6; 18.9; 16.6 and 15.1 km) with a second peak in September. The 30-year seasonal averages were 16.2 ± 2.1; 16.8 ± 2.4; 15.4 ± 1.8 and 14.0 ± 2.2 km in summer; and 10.2 ± 2.5; 10.9 ± 2.9; 11.0 ± 3.3 and 11.4 ± 3.0 km in Harmattan for the respective zones. Sahel and North Central had the worse visibility reduction during Harmattan compared with Southern and coastal areas. An analysis based on simple regression equation reveals a strong and negative relationship between visibility on one hand; AI; and AOD on the other hand. The analysis also discusses the variability regarding the frequency of occurrence of a dust storm; dust haze; and good visibility over the period of study. View Full-Text
Keywords: aerosol index; air pollution; atmospheric visibility; dust event; Nigerian environment; Harmattan period aerosol index; air pollution; atmospheric visibility; dust event; Nigerian environment; Harmattan period

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Balarabe, M.; Abdullah, K.; Nawawi, M. Long-Term Trend and Seasonal Variability of Horizontal Visibility in Nigerian Troposphere. Atmosphere 2015, 6, 1462-1486.

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