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Genes 2016, 7(8), 53; doi:10.3390/genes7080053

The Silencing of a 14-3-3ɛ Homolog in Tenebrio molitor Leads to Increased Antimicrobial Activity in Hemocyte and Reduces Larval Survivability

1
Division of Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Environmentally-Friendly Agriculture (IEFA), College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Korea
2
Trident School of Biotech Sciences, Trident Academy of Creative Technology, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 751024, India
3
The Soil Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Soil and Geological Sciences, College of Agriculture, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3008, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania
4
Jeonnam Bioindustry Foundation Bio Control Research Center, Gokseong 516-942, Korea
5
Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, Asan 336-745, Korea
6
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, California State University, San Bernardino, CA 92407, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wenyi Gu
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Interference 2016)
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Abstract

The 14-3-3 family of phosphorylated serine-binding proteins acts as signaling molecules in biological processes such as metabolism, division, differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis. Herein, we report the requirement of 14-3-3ɛ isoform from Tenebrio molitor (Tm14-3-3ɛ) in the hemocyte antimicrobial activity. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript is 771 nucleotides in length and encodes a polypeptide of 256 amino acid residues. The protein has the typical 14-3-3 domain, the nuclear export signal (NES) sequence, and the peptide binding residues. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript shows a significant three-fold expression in the hemocyte of T. molitor larvae when infected with Escherichia coli Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced larvae show significantly lower survival rates when infected with E. coli. Under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition, a strong antimicrobial activity is elicited in the hemocyte of the host inoculated with E. coli. This suggests impaired secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) into the hemolymph. Furthermore, a reduction in AMP secretion under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition would be responsible for loss in the capacity to kill bacteria and might explain the reduced survivability of the larvae upon E. coli challenge. This shows that Tm14-3-3ɛ is required to maintain innate immunity in T. molitor by enabling antimicrobial secretion into the hemolymph and explains the functional specialization of the isoform. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tenebrio molitor; Tm14-3-3ɛ; AMP secretion; RNA interference; innate immunity Tenebrio molitor; Tm14-3-3ɛ; AMP secretion; RNA interference; innate immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Seo, G.W.; Jo, Y.H.; Seong, J.H.; Park, K.B.; Patnaik, B.B.; Tindwa, H.; Kim, S.-A.; Lee, Y.S.; Kim, Y.J.; Han, Y.S. The Silencing of a 14-3-3ɛ Homolog in Tenebrio molitor Leads to Increased Antimicrobial Activity in Hemocyte and Reduces Larval Survivability. Genes 2016, 7, 53.

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